The Frog With Self-Cleaning Feet

REFERENCES

Introduction

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WHAT’S IN A (SCIENTIFIC) NAME

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SMART ANIMALS

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TOOL USERS

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CUNNING BUGS

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THE CHEATS

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THE PROTECTION RACKET

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TONGUES

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EVOLVING TOGETHER

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FEEDING TIME

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Matsuda, I., et al (2011). Regurgitation and remastication in the foregut-fermenting proboscis monkey. Biology Letters, 7 (5): 786-789.

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BIRD FEEDERS

Prakash, M., et al (2008). Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: the capillary ratchet. Science, 320 (5878): 931-934.

Estók, P., et al (2009). Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats. Biology Letters, 2009; DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2009.0611.

van der Vaart, E., et al (2012). Corvid re-caching without ‘theory of mind’: a model. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (3): e32904 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032904.

Smith, M. L., et al (2011). Elastic instability model of rapid beak closure in hummingbirds. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2011; 282 (1): 41-51 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.05.007.

WORLD’S LARGEST BIRDS

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Schuchmann, K. L.  (1999). Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). pp. 186 in: del Hoyo, Elliott & Sargatal, eds (1999). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 5. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-25-3.

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GIANT REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS

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Goliath Frog. The American Museum of Natural History. 2007. http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/past-exhibitions/frogs-a-chorus-of-colors/frog-fun-facts. Downloaded on 31.07.12.

Robinson, M. (1998). A field guide to frogs of Australia: from Port Augusta to Fraser Island including Tasmania. Reed New Holland. ISBN 1-876334-83-5.

Ward-Fear, G., et al (2009). Maladaptive traits in invasive species: in Australia, cane toads are more vulnerable to predatory ants than are native frogs. Functional Ecology, 23 (3): 559-568.

MIGHTY BITE

Erickson G. M., et al (2012). Insights into the ecology and evolutionary success of crocodilians revealed through bite-force and tooth-pressure experimentation. PLoS ONE 7(3):e31781.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031781.

Wroe, S., et al (2008). Three dimensional computer analysis of white shark jaw mechanics: how hard can a great white bite? Journal of Zoology, 276: 336-342.

WORLD’S LARGEST LAND MAMMALS

Ward, R., et al (1975). Records of Big Game, 16th Edition (Africa). London.

Anon (2012). Fénykövi Elephant. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://www.mnh.si.edu/onehundredyears/featured_objects/Fenykovi_elephant.html. Downloaded on 31.07.12.

Tuttle, R. H. (1986). Apes of the World: Their Social Behaviour, Communication, Mentality and Ecology. William Andrew. ISBN 0815511043.

Setchell, J. M., et al (2002). Reproductive parameters and maternal investment in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). International Journal of Primatology, 23: 51-68.

Abernethy, K. A., et al (2002). Hordes of mandrills: extreme group size and seasonal male presence. Journal of Zoology, 258 (1): 131-137.

Perry, R. (1966). The World of the Polar Bear. Cassell, London, and University of Washington Press.

Polar bear, (Ursus maritimus). U.S. Fish and Wildlife service. http://web.archive.org/web/20080711033807/http://www.fws.gov/endangered/factsheets/polar_bear.pdf. Downloaded on 01.08.12.

Phillips-Woolley, C. (1894). Big Game Shooting (Badminton Library). Illustrated by Charles Whymper. Volume II. Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, London.

Vucetich, M. G., et al (2005). Capybaras, size, shape and time: a model kit. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50 (2): 259-272.

Frith, H. J., and J. H. Calaby (1969). Kangaroos. Cheshire, Melbourne.

Anon (2011). Rogue kangaroo attacks 94-year-old Phyllis Johnson. 26th July 2011.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-14287357. Downloaded on 01.08.12.

Nowak, R. M., ed. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World, Volume 1. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Pp. 264–271. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.

Mazák, V. (1981). Panthera tigris. Mammalian Species 152: 1–8. Published 8 May 1981 by The American Society of Mammalogists.

Dagg, A.I., and J. B. Foster (1982). The Giraffe: its Biology, Behaviour, and Ecology. Melbourne, FL: Krieger Publishing Company; 1982.

Whitehead, G. K. (1998). Deer of the World: their evolution, behaviour and ecology. Stackpole Books. Mechanicsburg. ISBN 0-8117-0496-3.

Novak, R. M., ed. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Volume 2. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Pp. 1059-1060. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.

WHALE OF AN APPETITE

Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A., et al (2002). High feeding costs limit dive time in the largest whales. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 205: 1747-1453.

Goldbogen, J. A., et al (2006). Kinematics of foraging dives and lunge feeding in fin whales. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 209: 1231-1244.

Anderson, E. M., and J. R. Lovvorn (2008). Grey whale may increase feeding opportunities for avian benthivores. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 360: 291-296.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., et al (2011). Predation of grey whales and prolonged feeding on submerged carcasses by transient killer whales at Unimak Island, Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 421: 229-241.

Ford, J.K.B., et al (1998). Dietary specialization in two sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76:1456-1471.

Ford, J.K.B., et al (2011). Shark predation and tooth wear in a population of northeastern Pacific killer whales. Aquatic Biology, 11: 213-224.

Thewissen, J. G. M., et al (2011). Olfaction and brain size in the bowhead whale. Marine Mammal Science, 27 (2): 282-294.

Wiley, D., et al (2011). Underwater components of humpback whale bubble-net feeding behaviour. Behaviour, 148 (5): 575-602.

Stimpert, A. K., et al (2007). ‘Megapclicks’: acoustic click trains and buzzes produced during night-time foraging of humpback whales. Biology Letters, 3 (5): 467-470.

Morelle, R. (2009). Hungry whales steal birds’ dinner. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7940396.stm. Downloaded on 01.08.12.

Michaud, J., and C. T. Taggart (2011). Spatial variation in right whale food Calanus finmarchicus. Endangered Species Research, 15: 179-194.

SEA FOOD CONNOISSEURS

Finn, J., et al (2009). Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins. PLoS ONE 4(1):e4217.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004217.

Spitz, J., et al (2010). Prey selection by the common dolphin: fulfilling high energy requirements with high energy food. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 390 (2): 73-77.

Au, W., et al (2004). Echolocation signals of free-ranging killer whales and modelling of foraging for Chinook salmon. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 115 (2): 901-909.

Pitman, R. L., and P. Ensor (2003). Three forms of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Antarctic waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 5 (2): 131–139.

Visser, I. N. (1999). Benthic foraging on stingrays by killer whales in New Zealand waters. Marine Mammal Science, 15: 220-227.

Anon (2009). Orcas play with their food, but don’t insist on the Chianti. Science in the News. The Royal Society of New Zealand. http://www.royalsociety.org.nz/2009/06/23/orca-livers/. Downloaded on 28.07.12.

Wiesskotten, S., et al (2011). Hydrodynamic discrimination of wakes caused by objects of different size or shape in a harbour seal. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 1922-1930.

DOLPHINS AND FISHERMEN

Tun, T. (2004). Irrawaddy Dolphins in Hsithe – Mandalay segment of the Ayeyawady River and Cooperative Fishing Between Irrawaddy Dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, and Cast-net Fishermen in Myanmar. A report submitted to the Wildlife Conservation Society. https://sites.google.com/site/tinttunmm/2004FebCoopfishingReport.pdf?attredirects=0. Downloaded on 22.07.12.

Tun, T. (2005). Castnet fisheries in cooperation with Irrawaddy dolphins at Hsithe, Myitkangyi and Myayzun villages, Mandalay Division, in Myanmar. A report submitted to the Wildlife Conservation Society. https://sites.google.com/site/tinttunmm/2004DecCoopfishingReport.pdf?attredirects=0. Downloaded on 22.07.12.

Best, R. C., and V. M. F. Da Silva (1989). Amazon River Dolphin, Boto - Inia geoffrensis. In: Handbook of Marine Mammals (Ridgway S.H., and  S. R. Harrison eds.) Vol. 4: River Dolphins and the Larger Toothed Whales. Academic Press, London, pp. 1-24.

Daura-Jorge, F. G., et al (2012). The structure of a bottlenose dolphin society is couple to a unique foraging cooperation with artisanal fishermen. Biology Letters, doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0174.

Busnel, R. G. (1973). Symbiotic relationship between man and dolphins. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series, 35 (2): 112-131.

PECULIAR FOODS

Hoyoux, C., et al (2009). Wood-based diet and gut microflora of a galatheid crab associated with Pacific deep-sea wood falls. Marine Biology, 156: 2421-2439.

Vrijenhoek, R. C., et al (2009). A remarkable diversity of bone-eating worms. BMC Biology 7:74.

Jeffreys, R.M., et al (2010). Deep-sea macrourid fishes scavenge on plant material: evidence from in situ observations. Deep-Sea Research I, pp 621-627.

de Leo, F. C. , et al (2012). The effects of submarine canyons and the oxygen minimum zone on deep-sea fish assemblages off Hawai’i. Deep Sea Research Part : Oceanographic Research Papers, 64: 54-70.

Meehan, C. J., et al (2009). Herbivory in a spider through exploitation of an ant-plant mutualism. Current Biology, 19 (19): R892-R893.

Wiens, F., et al (2008). Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild tree shrews. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (30): 10426-10431.

Shohat-Ophir, G., et al (2012). Sexual deprivation increases ethanol intake in Drosophila. Science, 335 (6074): 1351-1355.

GRUBS UP!

Brennan, B. J. (2005). Vibrator behaviour in the social paper wasp. Proquest Dissertations and Theses. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=913538181&Fmt=7&clientId =79356&RQT=309&VName=PQD.

Brennan, B. J. (2007). Abdominal wagging in the social paper wasp: behaviour and substrate vibrations. Ethology, 113 (7): 692-702.

Grangier, J., and P. J. Lester (2011). A novel interference behaviour: invasive wasps remove ants and drop them from a height. Biological Letters, 7 (5): 664-667.

Dejean, A., et al (2010). Arboreal ants use the “Velcro® Principle” to capture very large prey. PLoS ONE 5(6):e11331.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011331.

Guénard, B., and J. Silverman (2011). Tandem carrying, a new foraging strategy in ants: description, function, and adaptive significance relative to other described foraging strategies. Naturwissenschaften, 98 (8): 651-659.

INSECT FARMERS

Pinto-Tomás, A. A., et al. (2009). Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants. Science, 326 (5956): 1120-1123.

Oliver, T. H., et al (2007). Ant semiochemicals limit apterous aphid dispersal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274 (1629): 3127-3131.

Muratori, F. B., et al (2008). Bad housekeeping: why do aphids leave their exuviae inside the colony? BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8: 338.

Kusukake, M., et al (2009). Scab formation and wound healing of plant tissue by soldier aphid. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276 (1662): 1555-1563.

LIVING TOGETHER

Rumpho, M. E., et al (2000). Solar-powered sea slugs. Mollusc/algal chloroplast symbiosis. Plant Physiology, 123 (1): 29-38.

Rumpho, M. E. , et al (2008). Horizontal gene transfer of the algal nuclear gene psbO to the photosynthetic sea slug Elysia chlorotica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (46): 17867-17871.

Kerney, R., et al (2011). Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (16): 6497-6502.

Bush, S. E., et al (2010). Evolution of cryptic coloration in ectoparasites. The American Naturalist, 176 (4): DOI: 10.1086/656269.

A SQUIRT OF WATER

Albins, P. A., and P. J. Lyons (2012). Invasive red lionfish blow directed jets of water at prey fish. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 448: 1-5.

Dill, L. M. (1977). Refraction and the spitting behaviour of the archerfish. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 2 (2): 169-184.

Anon (2009). New research reveals extraordinary habits of rare Australian Snubfin dolphin. http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/snubfin-dolphins009.html#cr. Downloaded on 22.07.12.

INTEGRATED WEAPON SYSTEMS

Bright, M. R. (2011). Sharks. Natural History Museum, London.

Albert, J. S., and W. G. R. Crampton (2006). Electroreception and electrogenesis, p. 431-472. In: The Physiology of Fishes, 3rd Edition. D. H. Evans and J. B. Claiborne (eds.).

Northcutt, R. G. (1980). Anatomical evidence of electroreception in the coelacanth. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C, 9: 289-295.

Wojtenek, W., et al (2001). Paddlefish strike at artificial dipoles simulating the weak electric fields of planktonic prey. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 204: 1391-1399.

Cheng, H., et al (1995). Ampullary organs, pit organs, and neuromasts of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus. Journal of Morphology, 226: 149-157.

Bartels, M., et al (1990). Representation of lateral line and electrosensory systems in the midbrain of the axolotl ambystoma- mexicanum. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 167: 347-356.

Schlegel, P., and B. Bulog (1997). Population-specific Behavioural electrosensitivity of the european blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus. Journal of Physiology-Paris, 91: 75-79.

Czech-Damal, N. U., et al (2011). Electroreception in the Guiana dolphin. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1729): 663-668.

Starkhammar, J., et al (2011). Frequency-dependent variation in the two-dimensional beam pattern of an echolocating dolphin. Biological Letters, 7 (6): 836-839.

BAT ATTACK

Gao, L., et al (2011). Ear deformations give bats a physical mechanism for fast adaptation of ultrasonic beam patterns. Physical Review Letters, 107 (21): 214301.

Goerlitz, H. R., et al (2010). An Aerial-Hawking Bat Uses Stealth Echolocation to Counter Moth Hearing. Current Biology, 20 (17): 1568-1572.

Elemans, C. P. H., et al (2011). Superfast muscles set maximum call rate in echolocating bats. Science, 333(6051): 1885-1888.

EYES

Anon (2008). The eye of the colossal squid — the largest animal eye known. http://squid.tepapa.govt.nz/anatomy/article/the-eye-of-the-colossal-squid. Downloaded on 26.07.12.

Nilsson, D-E., et al (2012). A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid. Current Biology, 22 (8): 683-688.

Roberts, N. W., et al (2009). A biological quarter-wave retarder with excellent achromaticity in the visible wavelength region. Nature Photonics; DOI: 10.1038/nphoton. 2009.189.

Kleinlogel, S., and A. G. White (2008). The secret world of shrimps: polarisation vision at its best. PLoS ONE 3(5):e2190.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002190.

Chávez, A., et al (2003). Retinal spectral sensitivity, fur coloration, and urine reflectance on the genus Octodon: implications for visual ecology. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 44: 2290-2296.

Wagner, H-J., et al (2008). A novel vertebrate eye using both refractive and reflective optics. Current Biology, 19 (2): 108-114.

Robison, B. H., and K. R. Reisenbichler (2008). Macropinna microstoma and the paradox of its tubular eyes. Copeia, 2008 (4): 780-784 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CG-07-082.

Ullrich-Lüter, E. M., et al (2011). Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1018495108.

Herberstein, M. E., and D. J. Kemp (2012). A clearer view from fuzzy images. Science, 335 (6067): 409-410.

TELLING THE TIME

Russell, G. F., and M.W. Hankins (2007). Circadian vision. Current Biology, 17 (17): R746-R751.

Halford, S., et al (2009). VA opsin-based photoreceptors in the hypothalamus of birds. Current Biology, 19 (16): 1396-1402.

LOUD VOICES

Garstang, M. (2004). Long distance, low-frequency elephant communication. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 190: 791-805.

Poole, J. H. (1999). Signals and assessment in African elephants: evidence from playback experiments. Animal Behaviour, 58 (1): 185-193.

Schön Ybarra, M. A. (1986). Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys. Folia Primatologica (Basel), 47 (4): 204-216.

Villet, M. (1987). Sound pressure levels of some African cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadoidea). Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa, 50: 269-273.

Sanborn, A.F. and P.K. Phillips (1995). Scaling of sound pressure level and body size in cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae; Tibicinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 88: 479-484.

Masaki, S., et al (1987). Evolutionary differentiation of right and left tegmina in crickets. Pp. 347-357 in Evolutionary Biology of Orthopteroid Insects, B. Baccetti, ed. Horwood, Chichester, UK.

Mhatre, N., et al (2012). Changing resonator geometry to boost sound power decouples size and song frequency in a small insect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (22): E1444-E1452. (tree crickets).

Kavanagh, M. W., and D. Young (1989). Bilateral symmetry of sound production in the mole cricket. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural,and Behavioural Physiology, 166 (1): 43-49.

Wever, E. G., and P. N. Herman (1968). Stridulation and hearing in the tenrec. Journal of Auditory Research, 8 (1): 39-42.

Anon (2008). Eleutherodactylus coqui. Global Invasive Species Database of the Invasive Species Specialist Group . http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=105&fr=1&sts. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Konishi, M., and  E. L. Knudsen (1979). The oilbird: hearing and echolocation. Science, 204 (4391): 425-427.

Saranathan, V., et al (2007). Genetic evidence supports song learning in the three-wattled bellbird Procnias tricarunculata (Cotingidae). Molecular Ecology, 16: 3689-3702.

Merton, D. V. et al (1984). Lek behaviour in a parrot: the Kakapo Strigops habroptilus of New Zealand. Ibis, 126 (3): 277–283.

Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler, H-U., et al (1994). Fishing and Echolocation Behaviour of the Greater Bulldog Bat, Noctilio leporinus, in the Field, Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 35(5): 327-345.

Chiu, C., et al (2008). Flying in silence: echolocating bats cease vocalising to avoid sonar jamming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 105 (35): 13116-13121.

Ramsier, M. A., et al (2012). Primate communication in the pure ultrasound. Biology Letters, 8 (4): 508-511.

Klemuk, S. A., et al (2011). Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds. PLoS ONE 6(11):e27029.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027029.

Mech, L.D. and L. Boitani eds. (2003). Wolves, Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press.

Vliet, K. A. (1989). Social displays of the American alligator. American Zoologist, 29: 1019-1031.

Dinets, V. (2010). Nocturnal behaviour of American alligator in the wild during the mating season. Herpetological Bulletin, 11: 4-11.

THE (NOT SO) SILENT WORLD

Sueur, J., et al (2011). So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae). PLoS ONE 6(6):e21089.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021089.

Versluis, M., et al (2000). How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles. Science, 289: 2114-2117.

Versluis, M., et al (2001). On the sound of snapping shrimp. Physics and Fluids, 13,S13.

Lohse, D., et al (2001). Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles. Nature, 413: 477-478.

Mathias, D., et al (2009). Relationship between sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) click structure and size derived from videocamera images of a depredating whale (sperm whale prey acquisition). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125 (5): 3444-3453.

Rivers, J. A. (1997). Blue whale vocalisations from the waters off Central California. Marine Mammal Science, 13 (2): 186-195.

Watkins, W. A., et al (1987). The 20-Hz signals of finback whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 82 (6): 1901-1912.

Payne, R. S., and S. McVay (1971). Songs of humpback whales. Science, 173 (3997): 585-597.

Garland, E. C., et al (2011). Dynamic Horizontal Cultural Transmission of Humpback Whale Song at the Ocean Basin Scale. Current Biology, 21 (8): 687-691.

Bright, M. R. (1984). Animal Language. BBC Books. London. (various fish).

Clara, M. P., et al (2002). Metabolic costs of sound production in the oyster toadfish. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80 (5): 830-838.

Moulton, J. M. (1958).  The acoustical behaviour of some fishes in the Bimini area. The Biological Bulletin, 114: 357-374. (trigger fish).

Colson, D. J., et al (1998). Sound production during feeding in Hippocampus seahorses. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 51 (2): 221-229.

Wilson, B., et al (2004). Pacific and Atlantic herring produce burst pulse sounds. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 271, Suppl 3, S95-S97.

SEA MONSTERS

Risting, S. (1928). Whales and whale foetuses. Statistics of catch and measurement collected from the Norwegian Whalers’ Association 1922-1925. Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Conseil International pour l'Éxploration de la Mer, 50: 1-122. (blue and fin whales).

Wood, G. L.  (1982). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats, 3rd  Edition. Pp.125-126. Guinness Superlatives Ltd. London. (whale shark).

Perley, M. H. (1852). Reports on the sea and river fisheries of New Brunswick. Fredericton. Pp. 222-223. Recovered from Biodiversity Heritage Library: CIHM/ICMH microfiche series ; no. 22313, http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.39319. Downloaded on 02.08.12. (basking shark).

Mollet, H. F., et al (1996). A review of length validation methods and protocols to measure large great white sharks. Pp. 91-108 in Great White Sharks: the Biology of Carcharodon carcharias, edited by A. P. Klimley and D. G. Ainley. Academic Press.

Fourmanoir, P. (1961). Requins de la Cote Ouest de Madagascar. Memoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar Serie F (Oceanographie), 4: 1-82.

Harvey, M. (1874). Gigantic cuttlefishes in Newfoundland. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 13: 67-70. Letter to Dr. Dawson viewed at Biodiversity Heritage Library, downloaded on 02.08.12.

Anon (2012). How big is the colossal squid? http://squid.tepapa.govt.nz/the-squid-files/article/how-big-is-the-colossal-squid. Downloaded on 02.-8.12.

Leavitt, K. (2009). A ‘MonsterQuest’ look at ‘giant squid found’. http://voices.yahoo.com/a-monsterquest-look-giant-squid-found-3791608.html. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Rincon, P. (2004). New giant squid predator found. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3370019.stm. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Marshall, A.D., et al (2009). Redescription of the genus Manta with resurrection of Manta alfredi (Krefft, 1868) (Chondrichthyes; Myliobatoidei; Mobulidae). Zootaxa, 2301: 1–28.

Id. Gudger, (1928). Mola mola. The Scientific Monthly, 26: 257-261 and figs. New South Wales record-sized specimens; quotes article on Australian specimen in Wide World Magazine, 10th December 1910. In Whitley, Gilbert P., 1931. Studies in ichthyology. No. 4. Records of the Australian Museum, 18(3): 96–134, plates xi–xvi. [25 March 1931]. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.18.1931.720. Published by the Australian Museum, Sydney.

Berg, L. S. (1962). Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. Volume 1.  Translated from Russian.  Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Jerusalem. [available from the Office of Technical Services, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington] (sturgeon).

Wood, G. L. (1982). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. 3rd Edition. Pp 138-139. Guinness Superlatives Ltd. (oarfish).

Bourton, J. (2010). Giant bizarre deep-sea fish filmed in Gulf of Mexico (with film of living oarfish). http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8501000/8501251.stm. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Wood, G. L. (1982). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. 3rd Edition. Pp 102-103. Guinness Superlatives Ltd. (leatherback).

Hughes, G. R. (1998). The 7000-km oceanic journey of a leatherback turtle tracked by satellite. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 229: 209-217.

Bostrom, B. L., et al (2010). Behaviour and physiology: the thermal strategy of leatherback turtles. PLoS ONE 5(11):e13925.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013925

Agassiz, A. (1865). Illustrated catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, number 2, page 44. published by order of the Legislature of Massachusetts. Downloaded on 02.08. 12. at Biodiversity Heritage Library. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/4923.

Anon (2009). Jellyfish as big as Sumo wrestlers hit Japan. Sky News. Monday 30th November 2009.

Richardson, A. J., et al (2009). The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24 (6): 312-322.

Agassiz, A., and H. L. Clarke (1907). Preliminary reports on the Echini collected in 1906 from May to December among the Aleutian Islands in Bering Sea and along the coasts of Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Korea and Japan by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 51: 109-139 (1907). Downloaded on 02.08.12. at http://biostor.org/reference/58062.

Pawlick, J. R. (2008). Redwoods of the reef: new insights on the giant barrel sponge of the Caribbean. http://people.uncw.edu/pawlikj/xmuta.html. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

RIVER MONSTERS

Ferraris, C.J. (2003). Family Arapaimatidae. In Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O., Ferraris, C.J.. Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre, Brazil: EDIPUCRS. pp. 582–588.

Hogan, Z. (2011). Pangasianodon gigas. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/15944. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Jenkins, A., et al (2007). Pangasius sanitwongsei. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15945/0. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Mareš, Jaroslav, M. (1993). Legendární příšery a skutečná zvířata, (Legendary monsters and real animals). Prague.

Monkolprasit, S., and T. R. Roberts (1990). Himantura chaophraya, a new giant freshwater stingray from Thailand. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 37 (3): 203-208.

WORLD’S MOST VENOMOUS ANIMALS

Fenner, P. J., and J. A. Williamson (1996). Worldwide deaths and severe envenomation from jellyfish stings". The Medical Journal of Australia, 165 (11–12): 658–61.

Sheumack,D. D., et al (1978). Maculotoxin: a neurotoxin from the venom glands of the octopus Hapalochlaena maculosa identified as tetrodotoxin. Science, 199 (4325): 188–9.

Hansson, K., et al (2004). Isolation and characterization of three novel Gla-containing Conus marmoreus venom peptides, one with a novel cysteine pattern. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 319 (4): 1081-1087.

Taylor, G. (2000). Toxic fish spine injury: Lessons from 11 years experience. South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal, 30 (1): 7-8. ISSN 0813-1988. OCLC 16986801. Downloaded on 02.08.12 from http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/5828.

Thomas, S., and E. Griessel (1999). LD50’s of snake venoms. http://seanthomas.net/oldsite/ld50tot.html. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Ross, L. K. (2008). Leiurus quinquestriatus. The Scorpion Files. http://www.ntnu.no/ub/scorpion-files/l_quinquestriatus_info.pdf. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Herzig, V., et al (2002). Intersexual variations in the venom of the Brazilian "armed" spider Phoneutria nigriventer (Keyserling, 1891). Toxicon, 40 (10): 1399–406.

Nunes, K. P. (2008). Tx2-6 toxin of the Phoneutria nigriventer spider potentiates rat erectile function. Toxicon, 51 (7): 1197-1206.
Ibister. G.,et al  (2005). Funnel-web spider bite: a systematic review of recorded clinical cases". Med J Aust 182 (8): 407–411.

BAD TO EAT

Anon (2009). Tetrodotoxin poisoning article. The Mainichi Daily, Tuesday 27th January 2009 Downloaded on 18.07.12 http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/national/news/20090127p2a00m0na012000c.html.

Swift, A., and T. Swift (1993). Ciguatera. Journal of  Toxicology and Clinical Toxicology, 31 (1): 1–29.

Anthoni, U., et al (1991). Poisonings from flesh of the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus may be due to trimethylamine. Toxicon, 29 (10): 1205-1212.

Dumbacher, J. P. (2004). Melyrid beetles; a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds. Proceedings of the National Academy, 101 (45): 15857-15860.

Kingdon, J., et al (2012). A poisonous surprise under the coat of the African crested rat. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1729): 675-680.

Bartram, S., and W. Boland (2001). Chemistry and ecology of toxic birds. ChemBioChem, 2, 809-811.

Rodahl, K., and T. Moore (1943). The vitamin A content and toxicity of bear and seal liver. Biochemical Journal, 37 (2): 166-168.

POISONOUS AND VENOMOUS

Phillips, B. L., and R. Shine (2007). When dinner is dangerous: toxic frogs elicit species-specific responses from a generalist snake predator. The American Naturalist, 170 (60): 936-942.

Fry, B., et al (2009). A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 126 (22): 8969-8974.

ALLERGIC TO LORISES

Krane, S., et al (2003). ‘Venom’ of the slow loris: sequence similarity of prosimian skin gland protein and Feld D 1 cat allergen. Naturewissenschaften, 90 (2): 60-62.

NATURAL MEDICINES

Masi, S., et al (2012). Unusual feeding behaviour in wild great apes, a window to understand origins of self-medication in humans: role of sociality and physiology on learning process. Physiology and Behaviour, 105 (2): 337-349.

Anon (2003). Chimpanzees and rhesus macaques self medicating in correspondence from the Plant Identification Forum section of Dave’s Garden. http://davesgarden.com/community/forums/t/386828/. Downloaded on 28.07.12.

Gradé, J. T., et al (2007). Deworming efficacy of Albizia anthelmintica in Uganda: preliminary findings. African Journal of Ecology, 45 (3): 18-20.

Lindshield, S. M., and M. A. Rodrigues (2009). Tool use in wild spider monkeys. Primates, 50 (3): 269-272.

Webster, J. (2009). Invasion of the body snatchers: the diversity and evolution of the manipulative strategies in host parasite interactions, pages 68-69 in Advances in Parasitology: Natural History of Host Parasite Interactions 68, Academic Press.

Singer, M. S., et al (2009). Self-Medication as adaptive plasticity: increased ingestion of plant toxins by parasitized caterpillars. PLoS ONE 4(3):e4796.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004796.

Lefèvre, T., et al (2010). Evidence for trans-generational medication in nature. Ecology Letters, 13 (12): 1485-1493.

CHEMICAL WARFARE

Rifflet, A., et al. (2011). Paralysing action from a distance in an arboreal african ant species. PLoS ONE 6(12):e28571.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028571.

Aneshansley, D. J., et al (1969). Biochemistry at 100°C: explosive secretory discharge of bombardier beetles. Science, 165: 61-63.

Hodges, W. (2004). Defensive blood squirting in Phrynosoma ditmarsi and a high rate of human-induced blood squirting in Phrynosoma asio. The Southwestern Naturalist, 49 (2): 267-270.

Sorrells T. R., et al (2011). Chemical defence by the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis) against the invasive argentine ant (Linepithema humile).PLoS ONE 6(4):e18717.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018717 http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/ - aff1.

Zhang, S., et al (2012). A novel property of spider silk: a chemical defence against ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1734): 1824-1830.

Deml, R., and K. Dettner (1995). Extrusible glands and volatile components of the larval gypsy-moth and other tussock moths. Entomologia Generalis, 19 (4): 239-252.

Glover, C. N., et al (2011). Adaptations to in situ feeding: novel nutrient acquisition pathways in an ancient vertebrate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278 (1721): 3096-3101.

CHEMICALLY CONTROLLED ANTS

Holman, L., et al (2010). Identification of an ant queen pheromone regulating worker sterility. Proceedings of the Royal Academy B, 277 (1701): 3793-3800.

Holman, L., et al (2010). Selfish strategies and honest signalling: reproductive conflicts in ant-queen associations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277 (1690): 2007-2015.

Choe, D-H., et al (2009). Chemical signals associated with life inhibit necrophoresis in Argentine ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 8251-8255.

REAL ZOMBIES

Andersen, S. B., et al (2009). The life of a dead ant: the expression of an adaptive extended phenotype. The American Naturalist, 174 (3): 424-433.

Yanoviak, S. P., et al (2008). Parasite-induced fruit mimicry in a tropical canopy ant.. The American Naturalist, 171: 536-544.

Robinson, Jr., E. J. (1947). Notes on the Life History of Leucochloridium fuscostriatum n. sp. provis. (Trematoda: Brachylaemidae). The Journal of Parasitology, 33 (6): 467–475.

Haspel, G., et al (2003). Direct injection of venom by a predatory wasp into cockroach brain. Journal of Neurobiology, 55 (3): 287-292.

Gal, R., and F. Libersat (2010). A wasp manipulates neuronal activity in the sub-esophageal ganglion to decrease the drive for walking in its cockroach prey. PLoS ONE5(4):e10019.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010019.

CATNAPS

Mitani, Y., et al (2010). Three-dimensional resting behaviour of northern elephant seals: drifting like a falling leaf. Biology Letters, 6 (2): 163-166.

McCormick, J. G. (2007). Behavioural observations of sleep and anaesthesia in the dolphin: implications for bispectral index monitoring of unihemispheric effects in dolphins. Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 1045 (1): 239-241.

Miller, J. O. P., et al (2008). Stereotypical resting behaviour of the sperm whale. Current Biology, 18 (1): R21-R23.

Martin, G. N., et al (1997). Psychology, 3rd edition, chapter 9 Consciousness, page 384 reference to Indus river dolphin. Pearson Education.

Robbins, J., et al (1998). Asynchronous diving pairs of humpback whales: implications of a newly described Behaviour observed in the North Atlantic wintering grounds. Abstract of the World Marine Mammal Science Conference, Monaco, 20–24.

Lyamin, O. I., et al (2001). Resting Behaviour in a rehabilitating gray whale calf. Aquatic Mammals, 27 (3): 256-266.

Anon (2007). Elephants sleep. http://elephanttrust.org/node/134. Downloaded on 02.08.12.

Yanega, D. (1999). Do insects sleep? http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1646/do-insects-sleep. Downloaded on 28.07 12.

Britton, D., et al (2012). Common blue-banded bee + Comments. Australian Museum. http://australianmuseum.net.au/Common-Blue-banded-Bee. Downloaded on 28.07.12.

THE BIG SLEEP

Tøien, Ø., et al (2011). Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature. Science, 331: 906-909.

Lohuis, T. D., et al (2007). Hibernating Bears Conserve Muscle Strength and Maintain Fatigue Resistance. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 80:3.

Pond, D., and G. A. Tarling (2011). Phase transitions of wax esters adjust buoyancy in Calanoides acutus. Limnology and Oceanography, 56 (4): 1310-1318.

HOT AND COLD, WET AND DRY

Tracy, R., et al (2011). Condensation onto the kin as a means of water gain by tropical tree frogs in tropical Australia. The American Naturalist, 178: 553-558.

Sherbrooke, W.C., et al (2007). Functional morphology of scale hinges used to transport water: convergent drinking adaptations in desert lizards. Zoomorphology, 126: 89-102.

Campos-Arceiz, A (2009). Shit happens (to be useful)! Use of elephant dung as habitat by amphibians. Biotropica, 41 (4): 406-407.

Voigt, C. C., et al (2011). Rain increases the energy cost of bat flight. Biology Letters, 7 (5): 793-795.

Boyle, W. A., et al (2010). Storms drive altitudinal migration in a tropical bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277, 2511-2519.

Ortega-Jimenez, V. M., and R. Dudley (2011). Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna’s hummingbirds. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9 (70): 1093-1099.

Mlot, N. J., et al (2011). Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (19): 7669-7673.

Tattersall, G. J. et al (2009). Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable vascular thermal radiator. Science, 325 (5939): 468-470.

Pincebourde S., et al (2009). An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures. The American Naturalist,174: 890-897.

KEEP OFF MY PATCH!

Scott, J. L. et al (2001). The evolutionary origins of ritualised acoustic signals in caterpillars. Nature Communications, 1 (4): doi: 101038/ncomms1002.

Tayler, J. R. A., and S. N. Patek (2010). Ritualised fighting and biological armour: the impact mechanics of the mantis shrimp’s telson. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 213: 3496-3504.

Staaterman, E. R., et al (2012).Acoustic ecology of the California mantis shrimp. In Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1, volume 730, The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, Part III, pages 165-168, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7311-5_37.

Millot S., et al (2011). Sound production in red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 3613-3618.

Britz, R., et al (2009). Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish Danionella dracula. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276 (1665): 2179-2186.

Mafli, A., et al (2011). Melanin-based coloration predicts aggressiveness and boldness in captive eastern Hermann’s tortoises. Animal Behaviour, 81 (4): 859-863.

LOST BABIES

Pusey, A. E., and C. Packer (1994). Infanticide in lions. In Parmigiani, S. and F. S vom Saal (editors) Infanticide and Parental Care Harwood Academic Press, Chur, Switzerland.

Sugiyama, Y. (1965). On the social change of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in their natural conditions. Primates, 6 (3–4): 381–417.

Emlen, S. T., et al (1989). Experimental induction of infanticide in female wattled jacanas. The Auk, 106 (1):  1-7.

Roberts, E. K., et al (2012). A Bruce effect in wild geladas. Science, 335 (6073): 1222-1225.

REALLY WILD COURTSHIP

Tsuji, F. I., and E. Hill (1983). Repetitive cycles of bioluminescence and spawning in the polychaete, Odontosyllis phosphorea. Biological Bulletin, 165: 444-449.

Cator, L. J., et al (2009). Harmonic convergence in the love songs of the dengue vector mosquito. Science, 323 (5917):1077-9.

Cokl, A., et al (2005). Tuning of host plants with vibratory songs of Nezara viridula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208 (8): 1481-1488.

Han, C. S., and P G. Jablonski (2010). Male water striders attract predators to intimidate females into copulation. Nature Communications, 1 (52)  
doi:10.1038/ncomms1051.

Shaw, K. L., and A. H. Khine (2004). Courtship behaviour in the Hawaiian cricket Laupala cerasina: males provide spermless spermatophores as nuptial gifts. Ethology, 110 (2): 81-95.

Brent, C. S., and J. A. Byers (2011). Female attractiveness modulated by a male-derived antiaphrodisiac pheromone in a plant bug. Animal Behaviour, 82: 937-943.

Kuntner, M., et al (2009). Intersexual arms race? Genital co-evolution in nephlid spiders. Evolution, 63 (6): 1451-1463.

Li, D., et al (2012). Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism. Biology Letters, 8 (4): 512-515.

Andrade, M. C. B. (2002). Risky mate search and male self-sacrifice in redback spiders. Behavioural Ecology, 14 (4): 531-538.

Stoltz, J. A., and M. C. B. Andrade (2010). Female’s courtship threshold allows intruding males to mate with reduced effort. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277 (1681): 585-592.

Pruitt, J. N., et al (2012). Non-conceptive sexual behaviour in spiders: a form of play associated with body condition, personality type, and male intrasexual selection. Ethology, 118 (1): 33-40.

Li, J., et al (2008). UVB-based mate-choice cues used by females of the jumping spider Phintella vittata. Current Biology, 18 (9): 699-703.

McGraw, K. J. (2004). Multiple UV reflectance peaks in the iridescent neck feathers of pigeons. Naturwissenschaften, 91 (3): 125-129.

Mazza, C. A., et al (1999). Perception of solar UVB radiation by phytophagous insects: Behavioural responses and ecosystem implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93 (3): 980-985.

Han, B. A., et al (2007). Behavioural avoidance of ultraviolet-b radiation by two species of neotropical poison-dart frogs. Biotropica, 39 (3): 433-435.

Caldwell, M. S., et al (2010). Vibrational signalling in the agonistic interactions of red-eyed tree-frogs. Current Biology, 20 (11): 1012-1017.

Stuart-Fox D, and A. Moussalli (2008). Selection for social signalling drives the evolution of chameleon colour change. PLoS Biol 6(1):e25.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060025.

Charlton, B. D., et al (2010). Female giant panda chirps advertise the caller’s fertile phase. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277 (1684): 1101-1106.

Clark, C. J., and T. J. Feo (2008). The Anna’s hummingbird chirps with its tail: a new mechanism of sonation in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275 (1637): 955-962.

Douglas, H. D. (2008). Prenuptial perfume: alloanointing in the social rituals of the crested auklet and the transfer of arthropod deterrents. Naturwissenschaften, 95 (1): 45-53.

Fortune, E. S., et al (2011). Neural mechanisms for the coordination of duet singing in wrens. Science, 334: 666-670.

Kelley, L. A., and J. A. Endler (2012). Illusions promote mating success in great bowerbirds. Science, 335 (6066): 335-338.

Keagy, J., et al (2009). Male satin bowerbird problem-solving ability predicts mating success. Animal Behaviour, 78: 809-817.

Brennan, P. L. R. et al (2010). Social environment affects penis size in waterfowl. Presentation at 47th Annual Meeting of the Animal Behaviour Society at Williamsburg, Virginia.

Barske, J., et al (2011) Female choice for male motor skills. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278 (1724): 3523-3528

Cummins, S. F., et al (2011). Extreme aggression in male squid induced by a β-MSP-like pheromone. Current Biology, 21 (4): 322-327.

Whitehead, H. 1987. Social organization of sperm whales off the Galapagos: implications for management and conservation. Rep. Int. Whaling Comm. 37: 195–199.

Cokes, A. K., and H. Whitehead (2004) Social structure and mating system of sperm whales off northern Chile. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82: 1360-1369.

Darling, J. (2001) Characterization of behaviour of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters. Report prepared for Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. http://hawaiihumpbackwhale.noaa.gov/documents/pdfs_science/HIHWNMS_Research_Darling.pdf. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

ODD COUPLES

de Waal, F. B. M. (1995). Bonobo sex and society: the Behaviour of a close relative challenges assumptions about male supremacy in human evolution. Scientific American, 272: 82–88.

Tan, M., et al (2009). Fellatio by fruit bats prolongs copulation time. PLoS ONE 4(10):e7595.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007595.

Anon (2010) ‘Gay’ Swans set up nest at Abbotsbury Swannery. http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/dorset/hi/people_and_places/nature/newsid_8621000/8621852.stm. Downloaded on 19.07.12.

Hoving H. J. T., et al (2011). A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid. Biology Letters, doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0680.

FIDDLER IN THE MUD

Milner, R. N. C., et al (2010). Eavesdropping in crabs: an agency for lady detection. Biology Letters, 6 (6): 755-757.

Milner, R. N. C., et al (2011). Keeping up appearances: male fiddler crabs wave faster in a crowd. Biology Letters, 8 (2): 176-178.

Lailvaux, S. P., et al (2009). Dishonest signalling of fighting ability and multiple performance traits in the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi. Functional Ecology, 23 (2): 359-366.

Darnell, M.Z., and P. Munguia  (2011). Thermoregulation as an alternate function of the sexually dimorphic fiddler crab claw. The American Naturalist, 178: 419-428.

George, S.B., et al (2010). Shell use by juvenile fiddler crabs of Uca pugnax and U. pugilator. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 396: 35-41.

BRINGING UP BABY

Deas, J. B., and M. S. Hunter (2011). Mothers modify eggs into shields to protect offspring from parasitism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1730): 847-853.

Andreone, Franco et al (2010). Living within fallen palm leaves: the discovery of an unknown Blommersia reveals a new reproductive strategy in the amphibians of Madagascar. Naturwissenschaften, 95 (5): 525 - 543.

Birkhead, T. R., et al (2011). Internal incubation and early hatching in brood parasitic birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1019-1024.

Aronov, D., et al (2008). A specialised forebrain circuit for vocal babbling in the juvenile songbird. Science, 320 (5876): 630-634.

Sjouke A. Kingma, S. A., et al (2011). Multiple benefits drive helping behaviour in a cooperatively breeding bird: an integrated analysis.The American Naturalist, March 10, 2011 DOI: 10.5061/dryad.8210.

Sergio, F., et al (2011). Raptor nest decorations are a reliable threat against conspecifics. Science, 331 (6015): 327-330.

Williams, Tony D. (1995). The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854667-X.

de Ponte Machado, M. (2007). Is predation on seabirds a new foraging behaviour for great white pelicans? History, foraging strategies and prey defensive responses. In, Kirkman , S. P. (ed). Final Report of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem BCLME) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, Cape Town.

Bajzak, C. E., et al (2011). Drifting away: implications of changes in ice conditions for a pack-ice-breeding phocid, the harp seal. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 89 (11): 1050-1062.

de Ponte Machado, M., and J. Hofmeyr (2004). Great white pelicans: waterbirds or farm birds? Bird Numbers, 13 (1): 11.

Whitehead, H. (1996). Babysitting, dive synchrony, and indication of alloparental care in sperm whales. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 38 (4): 237-244.

Oosthuizen, W. C., and P. J. N. de Bruyn (2009). King penguin brooding and defending a sub-Antarctic skua chick. Polar Biology, 32 (2): 303-305.

Müller, M., et al (2011). Maltreated nestlings exhibit correlated maltreatment as adults: evidence of a ‘cycle of violence’ in Nazca boobies. The Auk, 128 (4): 615-619.

Booth, D. T. (2009). Swimming for your life: locomotor effort and oxygen consumption during the green turtle hatching frenzy. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 212: 50-55.

Walker, Matt (2010). Cuttlefish seen laying eggs on a seahorse off Spain. http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8587000/8587087.stm. Downloaded on 19.07.12.

ALARM

Hingee, M., and R. D. Magrath (2009). Flights of fear: a mechanical wind whistle sounds the alarm in a flocking bird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276 (1676): 4173-4179.

Papworth, S., et al (2008). Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others. Biology Letters, 4 (5): 472-475.

Vitousek, M. N., et al (2007). Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile. Biology Letters, 3: 632-634.

King, L., et al (2007). African elephants run from the sound of disturbed bees. Current Biology, 17 (19): R832-R833.

Graw, B., and M. B. Manser (2007). The function of mobbing in cooperative meerkats. Animal Behaviour, 74: 507-517.

THE GREAT ESCAPE

Rundus, A., et al (2007). Ground squirrels use and infrared signal to deter rattlesnake predation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (36): 14372-14376.

Natale, G. S., et al (2011). Underwater acoustic communication in the macrophagic carnivorous larvae of Ceratophris ornate. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 92: 46-53

Blackburn, D.C., et al (2008). Concealed weapons: erectile claws in African frogs. Biology Letters, 4: 355–357.

Corcoran, A. J., et al (2009). Tiger moth jams bat sonar. Science, 325 (5938): 325-327.

Corcoran, A. J., et al (2011). How do tiger moths jam bat sonar? Journal of Experimental Biology, 214 (14): 2416-2425.

Card, G, and M. H. Dickinson (2008). Visually mediated motor planning in the escape response of Drosophila. Current Biology, 18 (17): 1300-1307.

Penney, H. D., et al (2012). A comparative analysis of imperfect mimicry. Nature, 483: 461-464.

Bura, V. L., et al (2011). Whistling in caterpillars: sound producing mechanism and function. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 30-37.

Vaughan, D, and R. R. Strathmann (2008). Predators induce cloning in echinoderm larvae. Science, 319 (5869): 1503.

Gemmell, B. J., et al (2012). Plankton reach new heights in effort to avoid predators. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1739): 2786-2792.

Osborn, K. J., et al (2009). Deep-sea, swimming worms with luminescent ‘bombs’. Science, 325: 964.

Deheyn, D. D., and N. G. Wilson (2011). Bioluminescent signals spatially amplified by wavelength-specific diffusion through the shell of a marine snail. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278 (1715): 2112-2121.

Claes, J. M., et al (2011). Morphology and control of photogenic structures in rare dwarf pelagic lantern shark. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 406 (1-2): 1-5.

Zylinski, S., and S. Johnsen (2011). Mesopelagic cephalopods switch between transparency and pigmentation to optimise camouflage in the deep. Current Biology, 21 (22): 1937-1941.

Norman, M. D., et al (2001). Dynamic mimicry in an Indo-Malayan octopus. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 268: 1755-1758.

Rocha, L. A., et al (2012). Opportunistic mimicry by a jawfish. Coral Reefs, 31 (1): 285.

de Soto, N. A., et al (2012). No shallow talk: cryptic strategy in the vocal communication of Blainville’s beaked whales. Marine Mammal Science, 28 (2): E75-E92.

Whitehead, H., et al (2012). Multilevel societies of female sperm whales in the Atlantic and Pacific: why are they so different. International Journal of Primatology, DOI: 10.1007/s10764-012-9598-z.

BEE POWER

Ono, M., et al (1995). Unusual thermal defence by a honeybee against mass attack by hornets. Nature, 377: 334–336.

Papachristoforou, A., et al (2007). Smothered to death: hornet asphyxiated by honeybees. Current Biology, 17 (18): R795-R796.

Tautz, J., et al (2008). Honeybee buzz attenuates plant damage by caterpillars. Current Biology, 18 (24): R1125-R1126.

INSECT RECORD BREAKERS

Richards, A. M. (1973). A comparative study of the biology of the giant wetas Deinacrida heteracantha and D. fallai from New Zealand. Journal of Zoology, 169: 195-236.

Arrow, G. J. (1951).  Horned beetles. A study of the fantastic in nature. w. Junk, The Hague, pp. 1-154.

Zhal, P. A. (1959). Giant insects of the Amazon. National Geographic Magazine. May 1959 edition.

Beebe, W. (1947).  Notes on the Hercules beetle,  Dynastes hercules at Rancho Grande, Venzuela, with special references to combat behaviour. Zoologica, New York, 32: 109-116.

Hennemann, F. H., and O. V. Conle (2008). Revision of Oriental Phasmatodea: The tribe Pharnaciini Günther, 1953, including the description of the world's longest insect, and a survey of the family Phasmatidae Gray, 1835 with keys to the subfamilies and tribes (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae). Zootaxa 1906. Magnolia Press. New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-86977-271-0 (paperback). ISBN 978-1-86977-272-7 (Online edition). http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2008/f/z01906p316f.pdf. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Martin, G. (2012). Ornithoptera alexandrae (Queen Alexandra’s birdwing). Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/biodiversity/loss-of-habitat/ornithoptera-alexandrae/index.html. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Kons Jr., H. (1998). Largest lepidoperan wingspan. Chapter 23 in Book of Insect Records, University of Florida. Ed. Thomas J. Walker. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/walker/ufbir/chapters/chapter_32.shtml. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Knell, R. J., and L. W. Simmons (2010). Mating tactics determine patterns of condition dependence in a dimorphic horned beetle. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277 (1692): 2347-2353.

Kamoun, S., and S. A. Hogenhout. (1996). Flightlessness and rapid terrestrial locomotion in tiger beetles of the Cicindela L. subgenus Rivacindela van Nidek from saline habitats of Australia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin, 50: 221-230.

Anon (2012). Eukaryote genomes: Anopheles gambiae. European Bioinformatics Insitute. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/genomes/eukaryotes/Anopheles_gambiae.html. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Rothschild, N. C. (1903). New species of Siphonaptera from Egypt and the Soudan. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 39: 83–87.

Hide, G. (1999). History of Sleeping Sickness in East Africa. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12 (1): 112–125.

Anon. The Kiss of Death: Chagas Disease in the Americas.  University of Texas at Arlington. http://www.uta.edu/chagas/html/biolTinf.html. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Schmidt, J. O., et al (1986). Hornet venoms: lethalities and lethal capacities. Toxicon (Elsevier), 24 (9): 950–954.

Schmidt, P.J., et al (1989). The detoxification of ant (Pogonomyrmex) venom by a blood factor in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Copeia, 1989: 603-607.

Sacks, E. (2011). Termites eat through $222,000 worth of rupee notes in Indian bank. NY Daily News Monday 25th April 2011. http://articles.nydailynews.com/2011-04-25/news/29492144_1_rupee-state-bank-termites. Downloaded on 28.07.12.

Rainey, R.C. (1989). Migration and meteorology: flight behaviour and the atmospheric environment of migrant pests. Claredon Press, Oxford.

Patek, S. N., et al (2006). Multifunctionality and mechanical origins: ballistic jaw propulsion in trap-jaw ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (34): 12787-12792.

Showers, W. B., and T. W. Sappington (1992). Corn pest logs thousands of frequent flyer miles. Agricultural Research, 40: 20-24.

Waloff, Z., (1972). Observations on the airspeeds of freely flying locusts: Animal Behaviour, 20: 367-372.

Quero, C., et al (2001). Responses of male Schistocerca gregaria to single pulses of sex pheromone and behavioural antagonist. Physiological Entomology, 26:106-115.

Kunzig, R., (2000). What's the buzz? Discover, 21: 27-28.

Vahed, K., et al (2010). Larger testes are associated with a higher level of polyandry, but a smaller ejaculate volume, across bush cricket species. Biology Letters, 7 (2): 261-264.

BACK FROM THE BRINK

Buckley, T.R., et al (2009). Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276: 1055-1062.

WORLD’S SMALLEST ANIMALS

Rittmeyer, E. N., et al (2012). Ecological guild evolution and the discovery of the world’s smallest vertebrate. Plos ONE 7 (1): e29797.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029797.

Anon. Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae). http://www.birds.com/species/a-b/bee-hummingbird/Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Anon (2006). Mammal record breakers: the smallest. The Mammal Society. http://web.archive.org/web/20070713081111/http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mammal/smallest.shtml. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Fons R., et al (1997). Rates of rewarming, heart and respiratory rates and their significance for oxygen transport during arousal from torpor in the smallest mammal, the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200: 1451–1458.

Kottelat, M., et al (2006). Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism, comprises the world's smallest vertebrate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 273 (1589): 895-899.

Blair Hedges, S. (2008). At the lower size limit in snakes: two new species of threadsnakes (Squamata: Leptotyphlopidae: Leptotyphlops) from the Lesser Antilles. Zootaxa, 1841: 1–30. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2008/f/zt01841p030.pdf. Downloaded on 03.08.12.

Mockford, E.L. (1997). A new species of Dicomorpha (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) with diminutive, apterous males. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90: 115-120.

Blair Hedges, S, and R. Thomas (2001). At the lower size limit in amniote vertebrates: a new diminutive lizard from the West Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science, 37 (3-4): 168-173.

Glaw, F., et al (1999). Specific distinctiveness and biogeography of the dwarf chameleons Brookesia minima, B. peyrierasi and B. tuberculata (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae): evidence from hemipenial and external morphology. Journal of Zoology, 247: 225-238.

Mittermeier, R. A., et al (2006). Lemurs of Madagascar. Second Edition. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Britton, A. (2009). Paleosuchus palpebrosus. Crocodilian Species List. http://crocodilian.com/cnhc/csp_ppal.htm. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Rao, G. C. (1968). On Psammothuria ganapatii n. gen. n. sp., an interstitial holothurian from the beach sands of waltair coast and its autecology. Proceedings: Plant Sciences, 67 (5): 201-206.

MYSTERY SOLVED?

Egri, Á., et al (2012). Polaroactid tabanids find stripe patterns with brightness and/or polarization modulation least attractive: an advantage of zebra stripes. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 215: 736-745.

THE WORLD’S MOST MYSTERIOUS ANIMAL

Glenner, H., et al (2008). Induced metamorphosis in crustacean y-larvae: towards a solution to a 100-year-old riddle. BMC Biology, 6:21, doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-21.

GETTING ABOUT

Lim, J. L., and DeMont, M. E. (2009). Kinematics, hydrodynamics and force production of pleopods suggest jet-assisted walking in the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 212: 2731-2745.

Motta, P., et al (2012). Scale morphology and flexibility in the shortfin mako and the blacktip shark. Journal of Morphology DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20047.

Oeffner, J., and G. V. Lauder (2012). The hydrodynamic function of shark skin and two biomimetic applications. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 215: 785-795.

Flammang, B. E., et al (2011). Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278 (1725): 3670-3678.

Uriona, T. J., and C.G. Farmer (2008). Recruitment of the diaphragmaticus, ischipubis, and other respiratory muscles to control pitch and roll in the American alligator. Journal of Experimental Biology,211(7):1141-1147.

McElroy, E. J. et al (2012). The correlation between locomotor performance and hind limb kinematics during burst locomotion in the Florida scrub lizard. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 215 (3): 442-453.

Maladen, R. D., et al (2009). Undulatory swimming in sand: subsurface locomotion of the sandfish lizard. Science, 325 (5938): 314-318.

Hsu, P.Y., et al (2012). Direct evidence of phospholipids in gecko footprints and spatula-substrate contact interface detected using surface sensitive spectroscopy. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9 (69): 657-664.

Puthoff, J. B., et al (2010). Changes in materials properties explain the effects of humidity on gecko adhesion. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 213: 3699-3704.

Jusufi, A., et al (2008). Active tails enhance arboreal acrobats in geckos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (11): 4215-4219.

Rind, F. C., et al (2011). Tarantulas cling to smooth vertical surfaces by secreting silk from their feet. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 1874-1879.

Pontzer, H., et al (2010). Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107 (32): 14048-14052.

ANIMAL ATHLETES

Sharp, N. C. C. (1997). Timed running speed of a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of Zoology, 241 (3): 493–494. Hawes, A. (2001). Pronghorns: survivors of the American savannah. Smithsonian Zoogoer, November-December 2001. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/publications/zoogoer/2001/6/pronghornssavanna.cfm. Downloaded on 26.07.12.

Creel, S., and N. M. Creel (2002). The African Wild Dog: Behaviour, Ecology, and Conservation. Monographs in Behaviour and Ecology, eds Krebs, J. and T. Clutton-Brock, Princeton University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-691-01654-2.

Burrows, M. (2003). Froghopper insects leap to new heights. Nature, 42: 509.

Sutton, G. P., and M. Burrows (2011). Biomechanics of jumping in the flea. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 836-847.

Hsieh, S. T., and G. V. Lauder (2004). Running on water: three dimensional force generation by basilisk lizards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (48): 16784-16788.

Astley, H. C., and T. J. Roberts (2012). Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping. Biological Letters, 8 (3): 386-389.

Anon (2008). Fast flying fish glides past ferry. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/7410421.stm. Downloaded on 22.07.12.

Wright, H. M. (1925). Big Game Fishing at Long Key Camp (promotional brochure reference to sailfish taking 400 ft of line in 4 seconds, from Wright’s original typewritten document offered for sale on eBay).

Norman, J. R., and F. C. Fraser (1948). Giant Fishes, Whales and Dolphins, G. P. Putnam (London) (reference to the striped marlin sustained speed).

Martin, R. A. (2001-2007). Elasmobranch record holders + Haulin Bass. http://www.elasmo-research.org/index.html. Downloaded on 26.07.12. (reference to various marine animal speeds).

DEEPEST DIVERS

Tyack, P. L., et al (2006). Extreme diving in beaked whales. Journal of Experimental Biology,209 (21): 4238-4253.

Whitehead, H. (2003). Vertical Movements: The Sperm Whale's Dive. Sperm Whales Social Evolution in the Ocean. University of Chicago Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-226-89518-1.

Condit, R. and B. J. LeBoeuf (1984). Feeding Habits and Feeding Grounds of the Northern Elephant Seal". Journal of  Mammalogy, 65 (2): 281–290.

M. A. Hindell, M. A., et al (1991). The diving Behaviour of adult male and female Southern Elephant Seals, Mirounga leonina (Pinnipedia, Phocidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 39 (5): 595–619.

David, R. W., et al (2003). Classification of Weddell seal dives based on 3 dimensional movements and video-recorded observations. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 264: 109-122.

Hooker, S. K., and R. W. Baird (1999) Deep diving behaviour of the northern bottlenose whale. Proceedings of the Royal Academy B, 266: 671-676.

Laidre, K. L., et al (2003). Deep-diving by narwhals, Monodon monoceros: differences in foraging behaviour between wintering areas? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 261:269-281.

Houghton, J. D. R., et al (2008). The role of infrequent and extraordinary deep dives in leatherback turtles. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 211: 2566-2575.

Shiomi, K., et al (2012). Point of no return in diving emperor penguins: is decision to return time limited by the number of strokes? Journal of Experimental Biology, 215: 135-140.

Ropert-Coudert, Y., et al (2006). An exceptionally deep dive by a little penguin. Marine Ornithology, 34: 71-74.

Zavalaga, C. B., and J. Jahncke (1997). Maximum dive depths of the Peruvian diving pretrel. The Condor, 99: 1002-1004.

EPIC JOURNEYS

Egevang, C., et al (2010). Tracking of Arctic terns reveals longest animal migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107: 2078-2081.

Rasmussen, K., et al (2007). Southern Hemisphere humpback whales wintering off Central America: insights from water temperature into the longest mammalian migration. Biology Letters, 3 (3): 302-305.

Scheinin, A. P., et al (2011). Grey whale in the Mediterranean Sea: anomalous event or early sign of climate-driven distribution change? Marine Biodiversity Records,  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267211000042.

Anon (2011). Elephant seal tracked by WCS travels 18,000 miles. http://www.wcs.org/news-and-features-main/jackson-elephant-seal.aspx. Downloaded on  25.07.12.

Bonfil, R., et al (2005). Transoceanic Migration, Spatial Dynamics and Population Linkages of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). Science, 310: 100-103.

Jorgensen, S. J., et al (2010). Philopatry and migration of Pacific white sharks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277 (1682): 679-688

Aarestrup, K., et al (2009). Oceanic spawning migration of the European eel. Science, 325 (5948): 1660.

Shillinger, G. L., et al (2008). Persistent leatherback turtle migrations present opportunities for conservation. PLoS Biol 6(7):e171.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060171.

Bailey, H., et al (2012). Leatherback turtle movement patterns. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 93 (2): 265-169.

Read, M. A., et al (2007). Satellite tracking reveals long distance coastal travel and homing by translocated estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus. PLoS ONE 2(9):e949.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000949.

Anon (2008). Crocodile feeding frenzy filmed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/7268805.stm. Downloaded on 20.07.12.

Campbell, H. A., et al (2010). Estuarine crocodiles ride surface currents to facilitate long-distance travel. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79 (5): 955-964.

Heyers D., et al (2007). A visual pathway links brain structures active during magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds", PLoS ONE 2(9): e937. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000937.

Vissotski, A. L., et al (2009). EEG responses to visual landmarks in flying pigeons. Current Biology, 19 (14): 1159-1166.

Gagliardo, A., et al (2001). Olfactory lateralization in homing pigeons: a GPS study on birds released with unilateral olfactory inputs. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 593-598.

Gerson, A. R., and C. G. Guglielmo (2011). Flight at low ambient humidity increases protein catabolism in migratory birds. Science, 333 (6048): 1434-1436

Weber, J. (2008). The physiology of long-distance migration: extending the limits of endurance metabolism. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212: 593-597.

Fuchs, T., et al (2008). Daytime micro-naps in a nocturnal migrant: an EEG analysis. Biology Letters, 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0405.

Bairlein, F., et al (2012). Cross-hemisphere migration of a 25 g songbird. Biology Letters, 8 (4): 505-507.

Burnham, K. K., and I. Newton (2011). Seasonal movements of gyrfalcons include extensive periods at sea. Ibis, 153: 468-484.

Weimerskirch, H., et al (2012). Changes in wind pattern alter albatross distribution and life history traits. Science, 335 (6065): 211-214.

Anon (2012). Albatrosses. British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_antarctica/wildlife/birds/albatross.php. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Åkesson, S., and H. Weimerskirch (2007). Long solo migrations across the Southern Ocean by juvenile wandering albatross. Microwave Telemetry Inc., Columbia, Maryland, USA. http://www.microwavetelemetry.com/uploads/newsletters/spring_2007Page3.pdfDownloaded on 27.07.12.

Sakamoto K. Q., et al (2009). From the eye of the albatrosses: a bird-borne camera shows an association between albatrosses and a killer whale in the Southern Ocean. PLoS ONE, 2009; 4(10): e7322.

Urquhart, F.A. and N.R. Urquhart (1977). Overwintering areas and migratory routes of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in North America, with special reference to the western population. Canadian Entomologist, 109: 1583-1589.

Merlin, C., et al (2009). Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies. Science, 325 (5948): 1700-1704.

Anderson, R. C. (2009). Do dragonflies migrate across the western Indian Ocean? Journal of Tropical Ecology, 25: 347-358.

RECORD BREAKING BIRDS

Harpole, T. (2005). Falling with the falcon. Smithsonian Air and Space. http://www.airspacemag.com/flight-today/falcon.html. Downloaded on 26.07.12.

Hawkes, L., et al (2011). The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese
(Anser indicus). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (23): 9516-9519.

Manville, R. H. (1962). Altitude record for mallard. The Wilson Bulletin, 75 (1): 92.

Pennycuick, C. J., et al (1996). Migrating whooper swans: satellite track and flight performance calculations. Journal of Avian Biology, 27: 118-134.

Anon (2010). Himalayan bearded vulture. Avis-Ibis: Foundation for Ecological Security. http://avis.indianbiodiversity.org/fauna-of-british-india-2nd-ed-vol-v-1928/himalayan-bearded-vulture-or-lammergeyer-gypaetus-barbatus-hemachalanus.html. Downloaded on 26.07.12.

Howard-Bury, G. K. (1921). Mount Everest: the reconnaissance 1921. http://archive.org/stream/mounteverestreco00howa/mounteverestreco00howa_djvu.txt. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Hingston, R. W. G. (1927). Bird notes from the Mount Everest expedition of 1924. Journal of the. Bombay Natural History Society, 32 (2): 320–329.

Laybourne, R. C. (1974). collision between a vulture and an aircraft at an altitude of 37,000 feet. The Wilson Bulletin, 86 (4): 461–462.

FLIGHT DETAILS

Sturbing-D’Angelo, S., et al (2011). Bat wing sensors support flight control. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, 108 (27): 11291-11296.

Lentink, D., et al (2007). How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings. Nature, 446: 1082-1085.

Jackson, B. E., et al (2011). The broad range of contractile behaviour of the avian pectoralis: functional and evolutionary implications. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011; 214: 2354-2361.

Evangelista, C., et al (2010). The moment before touchdown: landing manoeuvres of honey bees. Journal of Experimental Biology, 213: 262-270.

Davenport, J., et al (2011). Drag reduction by air release promotes fast ascent in jumping emperor penguins – a novel hypothesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 430: 171-182.

MAGNETIC SENSE

Begall, S., et al (2008). Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (36): 13451-13455.

Burda, H., et al (2009). Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields disrupt magnetic alignment of ruminants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (14): 5708-5713.

Červený, J., et al (2011). Directional preference may enhance hunting accuracy in foraging foxes. Biology Letters, 7 (3): 355-357.

Anon (2009). Magnets disrupt crocodile radar. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7912006.stm. Downloaded on 25.07.12.

PURE WHITE

Klinka, D. R., and T. E. Reinchem (2009). Adaptive coat colour polymorphism in the Kermode bear of coastal British Columbia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 98 (3): 479-488.

Anon (2008). White crocodiles in Bhitarkanika. The Times of India, 18th January 2008.

Anon (2010). Tourists flock to see white crocodiles in Sunderbans. The Indian Express, Monday 3rd May 2010.

Anon (2005). The elusive white tigers in Bandhavgarh. Garhwal Himalayan Expedition. http://www.bandhavgarhnationalpark.com/white-tiger.htm. Downloaded on 28.07.12.

Tingley, K. (2010). White lions again on the prowl. On Earth: Species Watch. http://www.onearth.org/article/species-watch-white-lions-again-on-the-prowl. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Longbottom, W. (2011). Rare pure white humpback whale calf spotted off Great Barrier Reef. Mail Online. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2043334/Rare-pure-white-humpback-whale-calf-spotted-Great-Barrier-Reef.html.Downloaded on 28.07.12.

Anon (2012). 4 white southern right whale calves spotted off South Australia. Wildlife Extra. http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/australia-white-wales.html#cr. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Anon (2012). All-white blackbird photographed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/16646922. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Dell’Amore, C. (2012). ‘White’ albino-like penguin found in Antarctica. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/01/120112-white-penguin-albino-antarctica-animals-science-blonde/. Downloaded on 25.07.12.

Reisinger, R. R., et al (2009). Leucistic southern elephant seal at Marion Island.
Polar Biology, 32 (3): 509-511.

Satherley, J. (2011). Albino baby dolphin photographed off Brazilian coast becomes the first recorded of its species. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2069022/Albino-baby-dolphin-photographed-Brazilian-coast-recorded-species.html. Downloaded on 20.07.12.

Black, R. (2012). White killer whale adult spotted for first time in the wild. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17783603. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Pemberton, M. (2008). Scientists finally see rumoured white orca. Anchorage Daily News.  http://www.adn.com/2008/03/07/337246/scientists-finally-see-rumored.html. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

INDIVIDUALS

Briffa M., and J. Greenaway (2011). High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria). PLoS ONE6 (7):e21963.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021963.

Liang Z. S., et al (2012). Molecular determinants of scouting behaviour in honey bees. Science, 335 (6073): 1225-1228.

LEFT AND RIGHT HANDED

Brown, C, and M. Magat (2011). Cerebral liberalization determines hand preferences in Australian parrots. Biology Letters, 7 (4): 496-498.

Dill, L. M. (1977). Handedness in the Pacific tree frog. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55: 1926-1929.

Cooper, R., et al (2011). Side dominance of Periplaneta americana persist through antennal amputation. Journal of Insect Behaviour, 24 (3): 175-185.

Sieg, A. E. et al (2010). Population level ‘flipperedness’ in the eastern Pacific leatherback turtle. Behavioural Brain Research, 206 (1): 135-138.

Roth, E. D. (2003). ‘Handedness’ in snakes? Lateralization of coiling behaviour in a cottonmouth population. Animal Behaviour, 66: 337-341.

Stancher, G., et al (2006). Lateralised righting Behaviour in the tortoise Testudo hermanni. Behavioural Brain Research, 173 (2): 315-319.

WORLD’S OLDEST ANIMALS

Roark, E. B., et al (2009). Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (13): 5205-5208.

Prouty N.G., et al (2011). Growth-rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 423:101-115.

McMurray, S. E., et al (2008). Redwood of the reef : growth and age of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Marine Biology, 155: 159-171.

Gatti, S. (2002). The role of sponges in high-Antarctic carbon and silicon cycling: a modelling approach. Ber. Polarforsch. Meeresforsch. 434. ISSN - 3193 1618 – 3193.

Schöne, B. R., et al (2005). Climate records from a bivalved Methuselah. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 228 (1-2): 130–148.

Wanamaker, A. D., et al (2009). Very long-lived molluscs confirm 17th century AD tephra-based radiocarbon reservoir ages for north Icelandic shelf waters. Radiocarbon, 50 (3): 399-412.

Koshihara, K. (1966). The Story of Hanako. English transcript of Koshihara’s radio broadcast on NHK on 25th May 1966. http://users.vcnet.com/rrenshaw/hanako.html. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Anon (2006). ‘Clive of India’s’ tortoise dies. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4837988.stm. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Ziuganov, V., et al (2000). Life span variation of the freshwater pearlshell: a model species for testing longevity mechanisms in animals. Ambio 29 (2): 102–105.

Helama S., and I. Valovirta (2008). The oldest recorded animal in Finland: ontogenetic age and growth in Margaritifera margaritifera (L. 1758) based on internal shell increments. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 84: 20–30.

George, J. C., et al (1999). Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales via aspartic acid racemization. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77 (4): 571-580.

Fisher, C. R., et al (1997). Life in the slow lane: growth and longevity of cold-seep vestimentiferans. Marine Ecology, 18: 83-94.

Bergquist, D. C., et al (2000). Longevity record for deep-sea invertebrate: the growth rate of a marine tubeworm is tailored to different environments. Nature, 403: 499-500.

Spadone, A. (2012). From exploring the bottom of the sea to better high seas fishery management. Reference to orange roughy in:  http://portals.iucn.org/blog/2012/05/09/from-exploring-the-bottom-of-the-sea-to-better-high-seas-fisheries-management/. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Orensanz, J. M. L., et al (2004). Precaution in the harvest of Methuselah clams: the difficulty of getting timely feedback from slow-paced dynamics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61: 1355-1372.

Anon (2009). George the giant lobster liberated from restaurant. http://articles.cnn.com/2009-01-10/us/maine.lobster.liberated_1_peta-president-ingrid-newkirk-biggest-lobster-giant-lobster?_s=PM:US. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Garde, E., et al (2007). Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization. Journal of Mammalogy, 88 (1): 49-58.

Gross, D. (2009). 110-year-old ‘living fossil’ becomes a dad. http://articles.cnn.com/2009-01-29/tech/lizard.reproduces_1_maori-henry-mildred?_s=PM:TECH. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Whiting, C. C. (2011). Granny (J2): the whale’s 100th birthday: poignant and inspirational. Hearst Seattle Media. http://blog.seattlepi.com/candacewhiting/2011/07/06/granny-j2-the-whales-100th-birthday-poignant-and-inspirational/. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Voituron, Y., et al (2010). Extreme life span for the human fish (Proteus anguinus): a challenge for ageing mechanisms. Biological Letters, 7 (1): 105-107.

SHORT-LIVED

Karsten, K. B., et al (2008). A unique life history among tetrapods: an annual chameleon living mostly as an egg. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (26): 8980-8984.

Szentpéteri, J. L. (2003). The brief, lusty life of the mayfly. National Geographic Magazine May 2003.

Gardner, M. P., et al (2006). Extraordinary plasticity in aging in Strongyloides ratti implies a gene-regulatory mechanism of lifespan evolution. Aging Cell, 5 (4): 315-323.

Depczynski, M. and D. Bellwood (2005). Shortest recorded vertebrate lifespan found in a coral reef fish. Current Biology, 15 (8): 288-289.

Valdesalici, S., and A. Cellerino (2003). Extremely short lifespan in the annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 270, suppl. 2: S189-S191.

FASHIONISTAS AND SOCIAL CLUBS

Gesquiere, L. R., et al (2011). Life at the top: rank and stress in wild baboons. Science, 333 (6040): 357-360.

Bamford, A. J., et al (2010). Associations of avian flushing and skin colouration with agonistic interaction outcomes. Ethology, 116 (12): 1163-1170.

Gilbert, L., et al (2011). Male attractiveness regulates daughter fecundity non-genetically via maternal investment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0962.

Chaine, A. S., et al (2008). Adaptive plasticity in female mate choice dampens sexual selection on male ornaments in the lark bunting. Science, 319 (5862): 459-462.

Hill, G. E. (1990). Female house finches prefer colourful males: sexual selection for a condition-dependent trait. Animal Behaviour, 40 (3): 563-572.

Hill, G. E., et al (1999). Pairing success relative to male plumage redness and pigment symmetry in the house finch: temporal and geographic constancy. Behavioural Ecology,10 (1): 48-53.

Oh, K. P., and A. V. Badyaev (2010). Structure of social networks in a passerine bird: consequences for sexual selection and the evolution of mating strategies. The American Naturalist, 176 (3): E80-E89, DOI: 10.1086/655216.

Filatova, L. A., et al (2009). The function of multi-pod aggregations of fish-eating killer whales in Kamchatka, Far East Russia. Journal of Ethology, 27 (3): 333-341.

URBAN LIVING

Mockford, E. J., et al (2011). Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song: Testing Transmission Efficiency. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6 (12): e28242 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028242.

Halfwerk, W., et al (2011). Low-frequency songs lose their potency in noisy urban conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (35): 14549-14554.

Beckmann, J. (2008). City bears live fast, die young. Wildlife Conservation Society.
http://www.wcs.org/news-and-features-main/city-bears-live-fast-die-young.aspx. Downloaded on 19.07.12.

Telis, G. (2010). Country ants go to town. http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/04/scienceshot-country-ants-go-to-t.html. Downloaded on 22.07.12.

Horváth, G., et al (2009). Polarized light pollution: A new kind of ecological photopollution. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,7: 317-325.

Greif, S., and B. M. Siemers (2010). Innate recognition of water bodies in echolocating bats. Nature Communications, 1, article number: 107, doi:10.1038/ncomms1110.

Robb, G.N., et al (2007). Food for thought: supplementary feeding as a driver of ecological change in avian populations. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, preprint,  DOI: 10.1890/060152.

Robb, G.N., et al (2008). Winter feeding of birds increases productivity in the subsequent breeding season. Biology Letters, 4 (2): 220-223.

Marzluff, J. M., et al (2010). Lasting recognition of threatening people by wild American crows. Animal Behaviour, 79 (3): 699-707.

Levey, D. J., et al (2009). Urban mockingbirds quickly learn to identify individual humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (22): 8959-8962.

Belguermi, A., et al (2010). Pigeons discriminate between human feeders. Animal Cognition, DOI 10.1007/s10071-011-0420-7.

Maklakov, A. A., et al (2011). Brains and the city: big-brained passerine birds succeed in urban environments. Biology Letters, 7 (5): 730-732.

Evans, K. L., et al (2011). Colonisation of urban environments is associated with reduced migratory behaviour, facilitating divergence from ancestral populations. Oikos, 121 (4): 634-640.

Partecke, J., and E. Gwinner (2007). Increased sedentariness in European blackbirds following urbanization: A consequence of local adaptation? Ecology, 88 (4): 882-890.

Kempenaers, B., et al (2010). Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds. Current Biology, 20 (19): 1735-1739.

Parris-Long, A. (2012). Seagull droppings ‘fool’ street lights into shining 24 hours a day. Yahoo News.

HOME SWEET HOME

Finn, J. K. et al (2009). Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus. Current Biology, 19 (23): R1069-R1070.

Coleman, F. C., et al (2010). Benthic habitat modification through excavation by red grouper in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The Open Fish Science Journal 3:1-15.

Kuntner, M., and I. Agnarsson (2010). Web gigantism in Darwin's bark spider, a new species from Madagascar. The Journal of Arachnology, 38: 346–356.

Agnarsson, I., et al (2010). Bioprospecting finds the toughest biological material: extraordinary silk from a giant riverine orb spider. PLoS ONE 5(9):e11234.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011234.

Bulmer, M. S., et al (2009). Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0904063106.

Adam Tofilski, A., et al (2008). Pre-emptive defensive self-sacrifice by ant workers. The American Naturalist,172 (5): E239-E243.

Seeley, T. D., et al (2012). Stop signals provide cross inhibition in collective decision-making by honeybee swarms. Science, 335 (6064): 108-111.

Kaiser, W., et al (2010). Plant green-island phenotype induced by leaf-miners is mediated by bacterial symbionts. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277 (1692): 2311-2319.

McAlpin, S., et al (2011). Lizards cooperatively tunnel to construct a long-term home for family members. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19041.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019041.

ALMOST HUMAN (1)

Ludwig, V. U., et al (2011). Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees and humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (51): 20661-20665.

Kahlenberg, S. M., and R. W. Wrangham (2010). Sex differences in chimpanzees’ use of sticks as play objects resemble those of children. Current Biology, 20 (24): R1067-R1068.

Muller, M. N., et al (2007). Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, 274 (1612): 1009-1014.

Pruetz, J. D., and S. Lindshield (2011). Plant-food and tool transfer among savanna chimpanzees at Fongoli, Senegal. Primates, 53 (2): 133-145.

Gomes, C. M. and C. Boesch (2009). Wild chimpanzee exchange meat for sex on a long-term basis. PLoS ONE 4(4):e5116.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005116.

Hockings K. J., et al (2007). Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit. PLoS ONE 2 (9):e886.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000886.

Matsuzawa, T., et al (2011). The Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba. Primatology Monograph, ISBN 978-4-431-53920-9.

Mitani, J. C., et al (2010). Lethal intergroup aggression leads to territorial expansion in wild chimpanzees. Current Biology, 20 (12): R507-R508.

Boesch, C., et al (2010). Altruism in forest chimpanzees: the case of adoption. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8901.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008901.

Douglas-Hamilton, I., et al (2006). Behavioural reactions of elephants towards a dying and deceased matriarch. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 100: 87-102.

Anderson, J. R., et al (2010). Pan thanatology. Current Biology, 20 (8): R349-R351.

Biro, D., et al (2010). Chimpanzee mothers at Bossou, Guinea, carry the mummified remains of their dead infants. Current Biology, 20 (8): R351-352.

Cronin, K. A., et al (2011). Behavioural response of a chimpanzee mother toward her dead infant. American Journal of Primatology, 73 (5): 415-421.
 
van Wolkenten, M., et al (2007). Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (47): 18854-18859.

UNEXPECTED PREDATORS

Surbeck, M., and G. Hohmann (2008). Primate hunting by bonobos at LuiKotale, Salonga National Park. Current Biology, 18 (19): R906-R907.

ALMOST HUMAN (2)

Randić, S., et al (2012). A novel mammalian social structure in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins: complex male alliances in an open social network. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1740): 3083-3090.

Frère, C. H., et al (2010). Social and genetic interactions drive fitness variation in a free-living dolphin population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107 (46): 19949-19954.

Quick, N. J., and V. M. Janik (2012). Bottle dolphins exchange signature whistles when meeting at sea. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1738): 2539-2545.

Cotter, M. P., et al (2011). ‘Porpicide’ in California: killing of harbour porpoises by coastal bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mammal Science, 28 (1): E1-E15.

DOLPHINS TO THE RESCUE

Anon (1984). Dolphins to the rescue ... again! Science Frontiers Online. http://www.science-frontiers.com/sf035/sf035p09.htm. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Goffman, O., and K. Lavalli (1996). Shark attack in the Gulf of Aqaba at Marsa Bareka, Sharm el Sheik and rescue of the swimmer by a pod of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and the crew of the Jadran. http://immrac.haifa.ac.il/hebrew/sharkattack.htm. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Jones, S. (2004). Dolphins save swimmers from shark. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2004/nov/24/internationalnews. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Celizic, M. (2007). Dolphins save surfer from becoming a shark’s bait. NBC News. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/21689083/ns/today-today_people/t/dolphins-save-surfer-becoming-sharks-bait/. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

Espina, E. L. (2008). Dolphin seen trying to rescue Negros fisherman from drowning. The Manila Times. 26th June 2008.

Palatino, M (2008). Fisherman saved by dolphins and whales. http://globalvoicesonline.org/2008/12/22/philippines-fisherman-saved-by-dolphins-and-whales/. Downloaded on 21.07.12.

Brooks, X. (2010). Porpoises rescue Dick van Dyke. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/nov/11/dick-van-dyke-porpoises-rescue?INTCMP=SRCH. Downloaded on 22.07.12.

Anon (2009). Thousands of dolphins block Somali pirates. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/14/content_11184581.htm. Downloaded on 21.07.12.

Roux, Q (2011). Dolphin alert saves life of Doberman. Marco Island Sun Times. 23rd February 2011.

LIONS TO THE RESCUE

Anon (2005). Kidnapped girl ‘rescued’ by lions. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4116778.stm. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

HUMPBACK TO THE RESCUE

Pitman, R. L., and J. W. Durban (2012). Cooperative hunting behaviour, prey selectivity and prey handling by pack ice killer whales, type B, in Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Mammal Science, 28 (1): 16-36.

Hoare, P. (2009). Whales save seal from orcas. Short Cuts Blog. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/nov/26/whales-save-seal-from-orcas. Downloaded on 28.07.12.

Davies, E. (2012). Humpback whales intervene in killer whale hunt. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/17991601. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

WHAT ON EARTH?

Bickerdyke, J. (1895) Sea Fishing (reference to the tope or Sweet William shark). Longmans, Green and Company.

THE WOODLOUSE OR PILL BUG

Owen, Denis (1985). What’s in a Name: a look at the origins of plant and animal names. BBC, ISBN 0-563-20335-8.

NEW SPECIES

Lessard, B. D., and D. K. Yeates (2011). New species of the Australian horse fly subgenus Scaptia (Plinthina) Walker 1850 (Diptera: Tabanidae), including species descriptions and a revised key". Australian Journal of Entomology, 50 (3): 241–252.

Geismann, T., et al (2011). A new species of snub-nosed monkey, genus Rhinopithecus Milne-Edwards, 1872 (Primates, Colobinae), from northern Kachin state, northeastern Myanmar. American Journal of Primatology, 73 (1): 96-107.

Welton, L. J., et al (2010). A spectacular new Philippine monitor lizard reveals a hidden biogeographic boundary and a novel flagship species for conservation. Biology Letters, 6 (5): 654-658.

Picker, M., et al (2012). A cockroach that jumps. Biological Letters, 8 (3): 390-392.

Jordana, R., et al (2012). Reviews of the genera Schaefferia Absolon, 1900, Deuteraphorura Absolon, 1901, Plutomurus Yosii, 1956 and the Anurida Laboulbène, 1865 species group without eyes, with the description of four new species of cave springtails (Collembola) from Krubera-Voronya cave, Arabika Massif, Abkhazia. Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews, 5 (1): 35-85.

Morelle, R (2012). ‘Supergiant’ crustacean found in deepest ocean. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-16834913. Downloaded on 20.07.12.

Phillips, A. J., et al (2010). Tyrannobdella rex N. Gen. N. Sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations. PLoS ONE 5(4):e10057.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010057.

Lourie, S. A., and R.H. Kuiter (2008). Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). Zootaxa, 1963: 54-68.

Lourie, S. A., and J. E. Randall (2003). A new pygmy seahorse Hippocampus denise from the Indo-Pacific. Zoological Studies, 42 (2): 284-291.

Rowson, B. and O. C. Symondson (2008). Selenochlamys ysbryda sp. nov. from Wales, UK: a Testacella-like slug new to western Europe (Stylommatophora: Trigonochlamydidae). Journal of Conchology, 39 (5): 537-552.

Clements R., et al (2008). Further twists in gastropod shell evolution. Biology Letters, 4 (2): 179-182.

Swennen, C. and S. Buatip (2009). Aiteng ater, new genus, new species, an amphibious and insectivorous sea slug that is difficult to classify [Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa(?): Aitengidae, new family]. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 57 (2): 495–500.

Anon (2012). Top Ten New Species – 2012. International Institute for Species Exploration. Arizona State University. http://species.asu.edu/Top10. Downloaded on 27.07.12.

AFTERWORD

Bell, B. D., et al (2004). The recent decline of a New Zealand endemic: How and why did populations of Archey’s frog Leiopelma archeyi crash over 1996–2001? Biological Conservation, 120:189–199.

Alan Pounds, Jay Savage, Federico Bolaños 2004. Incilius periglenes. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>.Downloaded on 04 August 2012.

Rinat, Z. (2011). Long thought extinct, Hula painted frog found once again in Israeli nature reserve. Haaretz, 17th November 2011. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/long-thought-extinct-hula-painted-frog-found-once-again-in-israeli-nature-reserve-1.396000. Downloaded on 04.08.12.

Arne Schiøtz 2004. Callixalus pictus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 August 2012.

Wilmar Bolívar, John Lynch 2004. Rhinella rostrata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 August 2012.

Morelle, R. (2008). World’s ‘rarest tree frog’ found. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7609780.stm. Downloaded on 4th August 2012.