The Frog With Self-Cleaning Feet

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Census of Marine Life – www.coml.org, accessed 19.05.13

Goto, T., et al (1999). Internal morphology and function of paired fins in the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum. Ichthyological Research, 46 (3): 281–287. doi:10.1007/BF02678514

Wise, G., et al (1998) Hypoxia tolerance in the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum). Journal of Experimental Zoology, 281 (1): 1–5. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-010X(19980501)

EXTRAORDINARY OCEAN EVENTS

Fréon, P., et al (2010) A review and tests of hypotheses about causes of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run. African Journal of Marine Science, 32 (2): 449-479. doi:10.2989/1814232X.2010.519451

Boyd, C. M. (1967) The benthic and pelagic habits of the red crab Pleuroncodes planipes. Pacific Science, 21: 394-403.

Albert, P., and A. Albert (2005) The Flying Mobulas of the Sea of Cortez.
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Addison, Capt. A., et al (1976) Shoals of jumping rays. Marine Observer, 46:11 (quarterly journal of marine meteorology), HMSO.

Minton, S. A. Jr., and H. Heatwole (1978) Snakes and the sea. Oceans (U. S.), 11: 53-56

Corliss, W. R. (1981) Incredible Life: A Handbook of Biological Mysteries. The Source Book Project. Glen Arm, MD 21057.

Anon (1880) Eighty Square Miles of Turtles. Scientific American, 43 (07): 106, August 14, 1880. Internet Archive. http://archive.org/stream/scientific-american-1880-08-14/scientific-american-v43-n07-1880-08-14_djvu.txt, accessed 22.03.13.

Collins, Capt. J. W. (1882) XI – History of the tilefish, in Report of Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, pages 237-294a. Penobscot Bay Watch. http://penbay.org/cof/COF_1882_XI.pdf, accessed 23.03.13.

 

HOLY FLYING ... WHAT!

Anon (2008) Fast flying fish glides by ferry. BBC News Tuesday 20th May 2008.
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Fish, F. E. (1990) Wing design and scaling of flying fish with regard to flight performance. Journal of Zoology, 221 (3): 391–403. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1990.tb04009.x

Muramatsu, K., et al (2013) Flying squid do fly. Marine Biology,
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Anon (1895) Flying crustacea. Scientific American, 72 (22): 347 (June 1895). Internet Archive. http://archive.org/stream/scientific-american-1895-06-01/scientific-american-v72-n22-1895-06-01_djvu.txt, accessed 24.03.13.

Gemmell, B. J., et al (2012) Plankton reach new heights in effort to avoid predators. Proceedings of the Royal Academy B, 279 (1739): 2786-2792. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0163

Worcester, D. C. (1914) Note on the occurrence of a flying crustacean in the Philippine Islands. The Philippine Journal of Science, 9 (1): 57. Internet archive. http://voluwww.archive.org/stream/act3868.0009.00d.umich.edu/act3868.0009.00d.umich.edu_djvu.txt, accessed 24.03.13.

 

MERMAIDS AHOY

Swift, A., and E. Lewis (1820) Mermaid. American Journal of Science and Arts, 2 (1): 178. Internet Archive. http://archive.org/stream/americanjournalo21820newh/americanjournalo21820newh_djvu.txt, accessed 22.03.13.

Anon (2011) Mermaid sighting in Caithness. Beachcombing’s Bizarre History Blog. http://www.strangehistory.net/2011/07/30/mermaid-sighting-in-caithness, accessed 22.03.13.

Munro, W. (1809) The Mermaid: seen on the coast of Caithness. The Times, Friday 8th September 1809.
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Davy, Sir Humphry – ‘Sea Serpents and Caithness Mermaids’, in English Prose, Vol V. Nineteenth Century, edited by Henry Craik (1916)
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MacAulay, J. M. (1998) Sea-folk and Ocean Paddlers. White Horse Press.
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Anon (1961) Isle of Man Promotes Mermaid Hunt: Hopes Tourists Take Bait. The Lewiston Daily Sun, March 6, 1961, page 4. http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1928&dat=19610306&id=FxMgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=TWYFAAAAIBAJ&pg=5168,445441, accessed 22.03.13.

Anon (2012) Mermaids: the body found. Animal Planet Press Release. http://press.discovery.com/ekits/monster-week-mermaids/press-release.html, accessed 22.03.13.

Anon (2012) No evidence of aquatic humanoids has ever been found. Ocean Facts. National Ocean Service. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/mermaids.html, accessed 22.03.13.

 

OCEAN’S OLDEST AND YOUNGEST ANIMALS

Piraino, S., et al (1996). Reversing the life cycle: medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Biological Bulletin, 190 (3): 302–312. doi:10.2307/1543022.

Bright, M. R. (2012) The Frog with Self-Cleaning Feet. The Robson Press. London. ISBN: 978-1-84954-379-8.

Roark, E. B., et al (2009). Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (13): 5205-5208.

Prouty N.G., et al (2011). Growth-rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 423:101-115

McMurray, S. E., et al (2008). Redwood of the reef : growth and age of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in the Florida Keys. Marine Biology, 155: 159-171.

Gatti, S. (2002) The role of sponges in high-Antarctic carbon and silicon cycling: a modelling approach. Ber. Polarforsch. Meeresforsch. 434. ISSN - 3193 1618 - 3193

Munro, D., and P. U. Blier (2012) The extreme longevity of Arctica islandica is associated with increased peroxidation resistance in mitochondrial membranes. Aging Cell, 11 (5): 845-855. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012.00847.x

Cargnelli, L. M., et al (1999) Ocean quahogArctica islandica life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandom NMFS-NE-148. Essential Fish Habitat Source Document, U.S. Department of Commerce.
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Anon (2007) 400 year old clam found. Press release from Bangor University.
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Schöne, B. R., et al (2005) Climate records from a bivalved Methuselah Arctica islandica. Palaeo, 228: 130-148.

Butler, P. G., et al (2013) Variability of marine climate on the North Icelandic Shelf in a 1357-year proxy archive based on growth increments in the bivalve Arctica islandica. Palaeo, 373: 141-151.

Herbert, T. A., and J. R. Southon (2003) Red sea urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanuscan live over 100 years: confirmation with A-bomb carbon 14. U. S. Fishery Bulletin, 101 (4): 915-922.

George, J. C., et al (1999) Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) via aspartic acid racemization. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 1999, 77(4): 571-580, 10.1139/z99-015

Spadone, A. (2012) From exploring the bottom of the sea to better high seas fishery management. Reference to orange roughy in:  http://portals.iucn.org/blog/2012/05/09/from-exploring-the-bottom-of-the-sea-to-better-high-seas-fisheries-management/; accessed on 27.07.12.

Anon (2009). George the giant lobster liberated from restaurant. http://articles.cnn.com/2009-01-10/us/maine.lobster.liberated_1_peta-president-ingrid-newkirk-biggest-lobster-giant-lobster?_s=PM:US; accessed 27.07.12.

Weiland, M. (2011) J2 Granny – Celebrating 100 years.
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Depczynski, M., and D. R. Bellwood (2005) Shortest recorded vertebrate lifespan found in coral reef fish. Current Biology, 15 (8): R288-R289.
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LIVING FOSSILS

Lim, J., et al (2006) Hagfish slime: ecomechanics: testing the gill clogging hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209 (4): 702-710.
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Bardack, D. (1991) First fossil hagfish (Myxinoidea): a record from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois. Science, 254 (5032): 704-703.
doi: 10.1126/science.254.5032.701

Johanson, Z., et al (2006) Oldest coelacanth, from the Early Devonian of Australia. Biology Letters, 2 (3): 443-446. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0470

Fordyce, R. E., and F. G. Marx (2012) The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: the last of the cetotheres. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 280 (1753): 20122645. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2645

Tanaka, S., et al (1990) The reproductive biology of the frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus from Suruga Bay, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 37: 273-291.

Kubota, T., et al (1991) Food habits of the frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineu collected from Suruga Bay, central Japan. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 57: 15-20.

Hussakof, L. (1909) A new goblin shark Scapanorhinchus jordani from Japan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 26: 257-262.
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Ryoji, W., et al (2008) First discovery of fossil Nautilus pompilius from Pangasinan, northwestern Philippines. Palaeontological Research, 12 (1): 89-95.
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Anon (2012) Horseshoe crabs are one of Nature’s great survivors. Natural History Museum News. http://nhm.ac.uk/about-us/news/2012/horseshoe, accessed 19.05.13.

 

Shorebird Connection: Migratory Shorebirds: Delaware Bay – One Link in a 10,000-mile-long Chain, at http://www.ceoe.edu/horseshoecrab/Shorebird/migratory.html, accessed 19.05.13.

 

Foote, M. (1999) Morphological diversity in the evolutionary radiation of Palaeozoic and post-Palaeozoic crinoids. Paleobiology, 25 (1): 1-116.
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Lepot, K., et al (2008) Microbially influenced formation of 2.7 billion-year-old stromatolites. Nature Geoscience, 1 (2): 118-121. doi: 10.1038/ngeo107 

 

SPEEDSTERS

Tinsley, J. R. (1964) The Sailfish: Swashbuckler of the Open Seas. University of Florida, Gainsville.

Elis, Richard (2013) Swordfish: A Biography of the Ocean Gladiator. University of Chicago Press.

Fritsches, K.A., et al (2005) Warm Eyes Provide Superior Vision in Swordfishes. Current Biology, 15: 55−58

Brown, T. (c.1897) Interesting Anecdotes of the Animal Kingdom. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. Glasgow.

McGirk, J. (2000) Fisherman dies after attack by marlin. The Independent Wednesday 2nd August 2000.

Passarelli, N., et al  Shortfin mako. Biological profiles. Florida Museum of Natural History, at http://flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/ShorfinMako.html, accessed 19.05.13.

Habasakal, H., and A. de Maddalena (2010) A huge shortfin mako shark from the waters of Marmaris, Turkey. Annales, Series historia naturalis 21: 21-24

 

DEEPEST DIVERS

Clarke, M. R. (1976) Observation on sperm whale diving. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56: 809-810.

Costa, D. P., et al (2010) Approaches to studying climatic change and its role in habitat selection of Antarctic pinnipeds. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 50 (6): 1018-1030. doi: 10.1093/icb/icq054

McIntyre, T., et al (2010) A lifetime at depth: vertical distribution of elephant seals in the water column. Polar Biology, 33 (8): 1037-1048. doi. 10.1007/s00300-010-0782-3

Tyack, P. L. (2006) Extreme diving of beaked whales. The Journal of Experimental Biology,209: 4238-4253. doi:10.1242/jeb.02505

Hooker, S. K., and R. W. Baird (1999) Deep-diving behaviour of the northern bottlenose whale. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 266 (1420): 671-676.
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Anon (2012) Penguins. British Antarctic Survey. http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_antarctica/wildlife/birds/penguins/index.php, accessed 19.03.13.

Sato, K., et al (2011) Stroke rates and diving air volumes of emperor penguins: implications for dive performance. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 2854-2863. doi:10.1242/jeb.055723

Muir, J. U., et al (2008) Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology 211 (8): 1169-1179. doi: 10.1242/jeb.013235

Davenport, J., et al (2011) Drag reduction by air release promotes fast ascent in jumping emperor penguins—a novel hypothesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 430: 171–182. doi:10.3354/meps08868

Clarke, L. (2013) Imperial cormorant’s incredible 45-metre-deep dive caught on film. http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-08/01/diving-bird-film, accessed 19.03.13.

Rubinoff, I., et al (1986) Diving of the sea snake Pelamis platurus in the Gulf of Panamá, 1. Diving depth and duration. Marine Biology, 91: 181-191.

Anon (2010) Olive-brown sea snake. IUCN Red Data List. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/176704/0, accessed 20.03.13.

Brischoux, F., et al (2007) Snakes at sea: diving performances of free-ranging sea kraits. In proceedings of 11th Annual Meeting on Health, Science and Technology.
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/230576942_Snakes_at_sea_diving_performances_of_free-ranging_sea_kraits, accessed 20.03.13.

Ineich, I., and P. Laboute (2002) Sea Snakes of New Caledonia. IRD Editions, Montpellier, France.

Hellyer, P., and S. Aspinall (2005) The Emirates: A Natural History. Trident Press Limited, London. (sea snake diving)

Yeates, L. C., et al (2007) Diving and foraging energetics of the smallest marine mammal, the sea otter. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 210: 1960-1970.
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Anon (2013) Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris ~ MarineBio.org. MarineBio Conservation Society, 14 Jan. 2013. http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=157, accessed 19.03.13.

Diving World Records at http://www.aida-international.org, accessed 19.05.13.

 

TROUBLE IN THE SUNLIGHT ZONE

Leahy, S. (2010) Giant bacteria colonise the oceans. http://www.ipsnews.net/2010/04/environment-giant-bacteria-colonise-the-oceans, accessed 10.03.13.

Conley, D. J., et al (2009) Critical review: hypoxia-related processes in the Baltic Sea. Environmental Science and Technology, 43: 3412-3420.
doi: 10.1021/es802762a

 

IN THE FAINT GLOW OF THE TWILIGHT ZONE

Bourton, J. (2010) Giant bizarre deep sea fish filmed in Gulf of Mexico (with video). BBC News at http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8501000/850, accessed 19.05.13.

Jenkins, R. (2003) Woman angler lands legendary sea monster. The Times 21st February 2003 at http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/uk/article1958850.ece, accessed 19.05.13.

Leite, A.M. (1988) The deep-sea fishery of the black scabbard fish Aphanopus carboin Madeira Island waters. Proceedings of the World Symposium. Fishing Gear and Fishing Vessel Design, Marine Institute St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada: 240-243.

D’Onghia, G., et al (2000) Biology of the silver scabbardfish from the Ionian Sea. Cybium, 24 (3): 249-262.

Fulton-Bennett, K. (2009) Researchers solve mystery of deep-sea fish with tubular eyes and transparent head. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Press Release. http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2009/barreleye/barreleye.html, accessed 15.03.13.

Robison, B. H. and K. R. Reisenbichler (2008) Macropinna microstoma and the paradox of its tubular eyes. Copeia, 4: 780-784. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CG-07-082

Haddock, S. H. D., et al (2005) Bioluminescent and florescent lures in a deep-sea siphonophore. Science, 309 (5732): 263. doi: 10.1126/science.1110441

 

IN THE INKY DARKNESS OF THE MIDNIGHT ZONE

Pietsch, T. W. (2009) Oceanic Anglerfishes: Extraordinary diversity in the deep sea.  University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25542-5.

Drazen, J. C., et al (2003) Aggregations of egg-brooding deep-sea fish and cephalopods on the Gorda Escarpment: a reproductive hot spot. Biological Bulletin, 205 (1): 1-7.

Nielsen, J. G., et al (2010) The Biology of Eurypharynx pelecanoides (Pisces, Eurypharyngidae). Acta Zoologica, 70 (3): 187-197. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.1989.tb01069.x

Gibbs, R. H., Jr. (1984) Melanostomiidae. In: Whitehead, P. J. P. et al, editors. Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Paris: UNESCO. Pp.341-365.

Anon (2007) The headless chicken fish.
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Smith, K. L., Jr. (2005) Enteropneust production of spiral faecal trails on the deep-sea floor observed with time-lapse photography. Deep Sea Research Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers, 52 (7): 1228-1240. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2005.02.004

Benningfield, D. (2008) Phronima. Science and the Sea. The University of Texas Marine Science Institute, at: http://www.scienceandthesea.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id+154&Itemid=10, accessed on 19.05. 13.

 

DEEP DOWN IN THE ABYSS

Jones, A. T., and K. J. Sulak (1990) First Central Pacific Plate and Hawaiian record of the deep-sea tripod fish Bathypterois grallator. Pacific Science 44 (3): 254-257.

Boxall, S. (2007) Small fish takes big bite. Cay Compass, at http://www.caycompass.com/cgi-bin/CFPnews.cgi?ID=1025678, accessed 19.05.13.

Anon (2013) Predatory tunicate. Monterey Bay Aquarium at:  http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/animals/AnimalDetails.aspx?legacyid=168, accessed 19.05.13.

 

IN THE DEEPEST DEEPS

Anon (2013) Vibrant Mix of Marine Life Found at Extreme Ocean Depths. Scripps Institute of Oceanography news release.
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Anon (2011) Researchers identify mysterious life forms in the extreme deep sea. http://scrippsnews.ucsd.edu/Releases/?releaseID=1206, accessed 08.03.13.

Anon (2009-10) Marine scientists return with rare creatures from the deep.
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Collins, M. A., and R. Villaneuva (2006) Taxonomy, ecology and behaviour of the cirrate octopods. In: Gibson, R. N., et al (editors) Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, vol. 44. Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 277-322.

Nielsen, J.G. (1977). The deepest living fish Abyssobrotula galatheae: a new genus and species of oviparous ophidioids (Pisces, Brotulidae). Galathea Report, 14: 41–48.

Morelle, R. (2008) ‘Deepest ever’ living fish filmed. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7655358.stm

Glud, R. N., et al (2013) High rates of microbial carbon turnover in sediments in the deepest underwater trench on Earth. Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo1773

 

RAINING DOWN FROM ABOVE

Hoving, H. J. T., and B. H. Robison (2012) Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.1357

Robison, B. H., et al (2003). Light Production by the Arm Tips of the Deep-Sea Cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis. Biological Bulletin, 205 (2): 102–109.

Tresguerres, M., et al (2013) How to get into bones: proton pump and carbonic anhydrase in Osedax marine worms. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 280 (1761): 20130625. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.0625

Rouse, G. W., et al (2004) Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science, 305 (5684): 668-671.

Christina, B., et al (2013) How Deep-Sea Wood Falls Sustain Chemosynthetic Life. PLoS ONE 8 (1): e53590 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053590

Caroline Hoyoux, C., (2009) Wood-based diet and gut microflora of a galatheid crab associated with Pacific deep-sea wood falls. Marine Biology, 156 (12): 2421–2439. doi:10.1007/s00227-009-1266-2

 

DEEP SEA HOT SPRINGS

Lutz, R. A., et al (1994) Rapid growth at Deep-sea Vents. Nature, 371: 663-664.

Warén A., et al (2003). A hot-vent gastropod with iron sulfide dermal sclerites. Science,302 (5647): 1007. doi:10.1126/science.1087696. PMID 14605361.

Desbruyeres D., and L. Laubier (1980). Alvinella pompejana gen. sp. nov., aberrant Ampharetidae from East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents. Oceanologica Acta, 3:267–274

Macpherson, E., et al (2006) A new squat lobster family of Galatheoidea from the hydrothermal vents of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Zoosystema, 27 (4): 709-723.

 

DEEP-SEA ANOMALY

Rona, P. A., et al (2009) Paleodictyon nodosum: A living fossil on the deep-sea floor. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56 (19-20): 1700-1712.Marine Benthic Ecology and Biodiversity: A Compilation of Recent Advances in Honor of J. Frederick Grassle.

 

COLD SEEPS

Fisher CR (1995) Toward an appreciation of hydrothermal vent animals: their environment, physiological ecology, and tissue stable isotope values. In: Humphris SE, Zierenberg RA, Mullineaux LS, Thomson RE (eds) Seafloor hydrothermal systems: physical, chemical, biological, and geological Interactions. Geophysical monograph 91. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 297–316.

Bergquist, D. C., et al (2000) Longevity record for deep-sea invertebrate. Nature, 403: 499-500, doi:10.1038/35000647

Järnegran, J., et al (2005) Egg predation fuels unique species association at deep sea hydrocarbon seeps. Biological Bulletin, 209 (2): 87-93.

Carney, R. (2002) Lakes within oceans. Ocean Explorer. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02mexico/background/brinepool/brinepool.html, accessed 22.03.13.

 

BELOW THE SEABED

Røy, H., et al (2012) Aerobic microbial respiration in 86-million-year-old deep-sea red clay. Science, 336: 922- 925.

Lever, M., et al (2013) Evidence for microbial carbon and sulphur cycling in deeply buried ridge flank basalt. Science, 339: 1305-1308.

Danovaro, R., et al (2010) The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/30, accessed 14.02.13.

 

DEEP SEA GIANTS

Compagno, L. J. V. (1984) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 – Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. United Nations Development Programme. FAO, Rome.

Clark, E., and E. Kristof (1991) How deep do sharks go? Reflections on deep-sea sharks. Bulletin of the American Littoral Society, 19 (4)/20 (1): 79-84.

Taggart, S. J., et al (2005) Co-occurrence of Pacific sleeper sharks Somniosus pacificus and harbor seals Phoca vitulina in Glacier Bay. Alaska Fisheries Bulletin 11 (2): 113-117.

MacNeil, M. A., et al (2012) Biology of the Greenland sleeper shark Somniosus microcephalus. Journal of Fish Biology, 80 (5): 991-1018.
doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03257.x

Watanabe, Y. Y., et al (2012) The slowest fish: swim speed and tail beat frequency of Greenland sharks. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 426-427: 5-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2012.04.021.
 
Taylor, L. R., et al (1983) megamouth – a new species, genus and family of lamnoid shark (Megachasma pelagios, family Megachasmidae) from the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 43A: 87-110.

Nelson, D. R., et al (1997) An acoustic tracking of a megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, a crepuscular vertical migratory. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 49: 389-399.

 

ODD SHARKS

Claes, J. M., et al (2013) A deep-water fish with ‘lightsabres’ – dorsal spine-associated luminescence in a counterilluminating lanternshark, Scientific Reports,3Article no: 1308, doi:10.1038/srep01308

Jones, E. C. (1971) Isistius braziliensis, a squalid shark, the probable cause of crater wounds on fishes and cetaceans. Fishery Bulletin, 69 (4): 791-798

Widder, E.A. (1998). A predatory use of counterillumination by the squaloid shark, Isistius brasiliensis. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 53 (3): 267–273. doi:10.1023/A:1007498915860

Pappas, S. (2011) Cyclops shark joins ranks of cryptic creatures. Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=cyclops-shark-joins-ranks-cryptic-creatures, accessed on 14.02.13

Chapman, D. D., et al (2007) Virgin birth in a hammerhead shark. Biology Letters, 3 (4): 425-427. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2007.0189

Chapman, D. D., et al (2008) Parthenogenesis in a large-bodied requiem shark, the blacktip Carcharhinus limbatus. Journal of Fish Biology, 73: 1473-1477.

Feldheim, K. A., et al (2010) Shark virgin birth produces multiple, viable offspring. Journal of Heredity, 101 (3): 374-377. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esp129

Lowe, C., and G. Goodman-Lowe (1996) Suntanning in hammerhead sharks. Nature, 383 (677) doi:10.1038/383677a0
 
Oliver, S. P., et al (2011) Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount. Plos One 6 (3): e14755. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.001474

 

MONSTER SHARK
Norman, B. 2005. Rhincodon typus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. www.iucnredlist.org, accessed on 11.05.13.

Wallace, F. W. (1923) The red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico. Fishing Gazette Annual Review. New York.

Graham, R. T. (2006) Diving behaviour of whale sharks in relation to a predictable food pulse. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 3 (6): 109-116, published on line doi: 10.1098/​rsif.2005.0082

Bloom, S. (2013) Whale sharks of Cendarawasih. http://www.stevebloom.com/pages/stories/53.html, accessed 11.05.13.

 

 

BASKERS

Perley, M. H. (1850) Reports on the sea and river fisheries of New Brunswick, Fredericton. http://archive.org/stream/cihm_22313/cihm_22313_djvu.txt, accessed on 12.05.13.

Skomal, G. B., et al (2009) Transequatorial migrations by basking sharks in the western Atlantic Ocean. Current Biology,19 (12): 1019-1022.
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Gore, M. A., et al (2008) Transatlantic migration and deep mid-ocean diving by basking shark. Biology Letters. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0147

Kuban, G. J. (1997) Sea monster or shark? An analysis of a supposed plesiosaur carcass netted in 1977. Reports of the National Center for Science Education, 17 (3): 16-28, also at: http://www.palaeo.cc/paluxy/plesios.htm, accessed 20.05.13.

 

WHITE DEATH

Tricas, T. C., and J. E. McCosker (1984) Predatory behaviour of the whaite shark with notes on its biology. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 43 (14): 221-238.

Klimley P., and D. Ainley (editors) (1996) Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press. ISBN: 0-12-415031-4.

Fallows, C, et al (2013) White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) Scavenging on Whales and Its Potential Role in Further Shaping the Ecology of an Apex Predator. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60797. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060797

Bonfil, R., et al (2005) Transoceanic Migration, Spatial Dynamics and Population Linkages of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). Science, 310: 100-103

Jorgensen, S. J., et al (2009) Philopatry and migration of Pacific white sharks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277 (1682): 679-688.

Jorgensen, S. J., et al (2012) Eating or meeting? Cluster analysis reveals intricacies of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) migration and offshore behaviour. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47819. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047819

Weng, K., and R. Honebrink (2013) Occurrence of white sharks in Hawaiian waters. Journal of Marine Biology, vol. 2013 Article ID 598745. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/598745

 

OCEAN’S DUSTBIN

Simpfendorfer, C. (2009) Galeocerdo cuvier. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 www.iucnredlist.org, accessed on 20.05.13.

Fourmanoir, P. (1961) Requin de la cote ouest de Madagascar. Mémoires de L’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie, 4: 1-81.

Holland K. N., et al (1999) Movements of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in coastal Hawaiian waters. Marine Biology, 134: 665-675.

Meyer, C. G., et al (2010) A multiple instrument approach to quantifying the movement patterns and habitat use of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier) and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis) at French Frigate Shoals. Marine Biology, 157:1857-1868.

 

SNIFF N’SNACK
Cousteau, J., and P. Cousteau. (1970) The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea. Cassell & Company, London. ISBN: 0-304-93656-1.

Baum, J., et al (2006) Carcharhinus longimanus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 <www.iuncredlist.org> accessed 20.05.13.

Howey-Jordan, L. A., et al (2013) Complex Movements, Philopatry and Expanded Depth Range of a Severely Threatened Pelagic Shark, the Oceanic Whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the Western North Atlantic. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56588. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056588

Savelev, S.V. and V. P. Chernikov, V.P. (1994) The oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, and its use of aerial olfaction in search for food. Journal of Ichthyology, 34 (6): 38-47

 

THE ADAPTABLE BULL SHARK

Simpfendorfer, C., and G. H. Burgess (2009) Carcharhinus leucas. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 www.iucnredlist.org accessed 20.05.13.

Harbegger, M. L., et al (2012) Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny. Zoology,115 (6): 354-364.

Buckland, L. (2011) Now that’s what you call a water hazard! Flooding brings killer sharks to golf course. The Mail 10th October 2011, online at:
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SHARKS THAT BITE PEOPLE

International Shark Attack File
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/sharks/ISAF/ISAF.htm, accessed 01.03.13.

Stroud, E. M., et al (2013) Chemical shark repellent: myth or fact? The effect of a shark necromone on shark feeding behaviour. Ocean & Coastal Management http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.01.006

 

DEADLY JELLIES

Lewis, C., and B. Bentlage (2009) Clarifying the identity of the Japanese Habu-kurage, Chironex yamaguchii, sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida). Zootaxa, 2030: 59-65

Peck, S. (2007) Jellyfish attack wipes out salmon farm. The Daily Telegraph 22nd November 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/3315565/Jellyfish-attack-wipes-out-salmon-farm.html, accessed 17.03.13.

Fenner, P. J., and J. A. Williamson (1996) Worldwide deaths and severe envenomation from jellyfish stings. Medical Journal of Australia, 165 (11-12): 658-651.

Hamner, W. M.., et al (1994). Sun-compass migration by Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa): population retention and reproduction in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. Marine Biology, 119 (3): 347–356. doi:10.1007/BF00347531.

Dawson, M. N., W. M. Hamner (2003) Geographic variation and behavioral evolution in marine plankton: the case of Mastigias (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae). Marine Biology, 143 (6): pp. 1161–1174. doi:10.1007/s00227-003-1155-z

Ryall, J. (2009) Japanese fishing trawler sunk by giant jellyfish.
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Mills, C. E., and Y. M. Hirano (2007) Hydromedusae. Pp.286-288. In: Encyclopedia of Tidepools and ocky Shores (M. W. Denny and S. D. Gaines, editors). University of California Press, Berkeley.

Fenner, P. J., and J. A. Williamson (1996) Worldwide deaths and severe envenomation from jellyfish stings. Medical Journal of Australia, 165 (11-12): 658-661.

 

OCEAN’S MOST VENOMOUS ANIMALS

Fenner, P. J., and J. A. Williamson (1996) Worldwide deaths and envenomation from jellyfish stings. The Medical Journal of Australia 165 (11): 658

Sheumack, D. D., et al (1978) Maculotoxin: a neurotoxin from the venom glands of the octopus Hapalochlaena maculosa identified as a tetrodotoxin. Science,199 (4325): 188-189. doi: 10.1126/science.619451

Pickwell, G. V. (1994) A review of contemporary sea snake toxinology: chemistry, pharmacology, immunology, and clinico-pathologal aspects (p98). In Sea Snake Toxinology edited by P. Gopalakrishnakone. Singapore University Press. ISBN: 9971-69-193-0.

Kohn, A. J. (1956). Piscivorous gastropods of the genus Conus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,42 (3): 168–171. doi:10.1073/pnas.42.3.168.

Olivera, B.M., and R. W. Teichert (2007). Diversity of the neurotoxic Conus peptides: a model for concerted pharmacological discovery. Molecular Interventions,7 (5): 251–60. doi:10.1124/mi.7.5.7

Anon (2013) Cone shells: Venom. http://www.theconesnail.com/explore-cone-snails/venom, accessed 20.03 13.

Terlau, H., and B. M. Olivera (2004) Conusvenoms: a rich source of novel ion channel-targeted peptides. Physiological Reviews, 84:41-68.

Taylor, G. (2000). Toxic fish spine injury: Lessons from 11 years experience. South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal, 30 (1): 7-8. ISSN 0813-1988

 

TALES OF WHALES

Risting, S. (1922) Av Hvalfangstens historie. Publikation nr. 2 fra KommandØr Chr. Christensens Hvalfangstmuseum, Sandefjord. J. W. Cappelens Forlag, Kristiania 1922. At: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/547#page/23/mode/1up, accessed 20.05.13.

Hagelund, W.A. (1987) Whalers No More: A History of Whaling on the West Coast. Harbour Publishing. ISBN: 0-920080-02-2.

Mackintosh, N. A., and J. F. G. Wheeler (1929) Southern blue and fin whales. Discovery Reports, 1: 259-540.

Andrews, R. C. (1929) Whale Hunting with Gun and Camera: a Naturalist’s Account of the Modern Shore-whaling Industry, of Whales and their Habits, and of Hunting Experiences in Various Parts of the World. D. Appleton & Company. New York, page 158. At: http://archive.org/details/whalehuntingwith00andrrich, accessed 21.05.13.

McDonlad, M., et al (1995) Blue and fin whales observed on a seafloor array in the northeast Pacific. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 98 (2): 712-721.

Croll, D. C., et al (2002) Only male fin whales sing loud songs. Nature, 117: 809. Also at: http://polymer.bu.edu/hes/articles/aabmsss02.pdf, accessed 21.05.13.

Helweg, D. A., et al (1990) Comparison of songs of humpback whales recorded in Japan, Hawaii and Mexico during the winter of 1989. Scientific Reports to the Cetacean Research Institute, 1: 1-12.

Green, M. L., et al (2001) Singing humpback whales associate with mothers and calves. At: http://www.oceanmammalinst.org/mmconf-vancouver.html, accessed 21.05.13.

Stevick, P. T., et al (2010) A quarter of a world away: female humpback whale moves 10 000 km between breeding areas. Biology Letters, 7 (2): 299-302.
doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2010.0717

Robbins J., et al (2008) Humpback whale photo-identification reveals exchange between American Samoa and the Antarctic Peninsula, and a new mammalian distance record. IWC Scientific Committee Document SC/60/SH5. Available from the International Whaling Commission, The Red House, 135 Station Road, Impington, Cambridge, UK.

Allen, J., et al (2013) Network-Based Diffusion Analysis Reveals Cultural Transmission of Lobtail Feeding in Humpback Whales. Science, 340 (6131): 485-488. DOI: 10.1126/science.1231976.

Werth, A. J., et al (2013) Flow-dependent porosity and other biomechanical properties of mysticete baleen. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216: 1152-1159. doi: 10.1242/​jeb.078931

Ford, T. J. Jr., et al (2013) An Intraoral Thermoregulatory Organ in the Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus), the Corpus Cavernosum Maxillaris. The Anatomical Record. doi: 10.1002/ar.22681

Weller, D. W., et al (2002) The western grey whale: a review of past exploitation, current status and potential threats. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 4 (1): 7-12.

Mulvaney, K. (2010) Gray whale spotted on wrong side of world.
http://news.discovery.com/earth/global-warming/gray-whale-spotted-on-wrong-side-of-world.htm, accessed on 14. 02.13.

Paterson, J.  (2013) A rare and mysterious visitor in Walvis Bay.
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Bright, M. (2012) Africa: Eye to Eye with the Unknown. Quercus Editions Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-78087-914-7.

Bright, M. (2012) Great Barrier Reef. Programme 3, ‘Reef and Beyond’. BBC-2.

 

WHALES WITH TEETH

Pitman, R.L., et al (2001) Killer whale predation on sperm whales: Observations and implications. Marine Mammal Science, 17 (3): 494–507.
doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2001.tb01000.x

Courtage, B. P. (2010) Ambergris. http://www.ambre-gris.com/ambre_gris_us.htm, accessed 13.05.13.

Thompson, K., et al (2012) The world’s rarest whale. Current Biology,22 (21): R905-R906.

Shane, S. H. (1994) Pilot whales carrying dead sea lions. Mammalia, 58 (3): 494-498. SSN  0025-1461

Dietz, R., et al (2007) Upside-down swimming behaviour of free-ranging narwhals. BMC Ecology, 7:14. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-7-14

 

WOLVES OF THE SEA

Pitman, R. L., and P. Ensor (2003) Three forms of killer whales in Antarctic waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 5 (2): 131-139

Pitman, R. L., et al (2011) Observations of a distinctive morphotype of killer whale (Orcinus orca), type D, from subantarctic waters. Polar Biology, 34(2): 303-306

Guinet, C., and J. Bouvier (1995) Development of intentional stranding hunting techniques in killer whale calves at Crozet Archipelago. Canadian Journal of Zoology,73 (1): 27-33. 10.1139/z95-004

Foster, E. A., et al (2012) Adaptive prolonged post-reproductive life span in killer whales. Science, 337 (6100): 1313. doi: 10.1126/science.1224198

Eden Killer Whale Museum. http://www.killerwhalemuseum.com.au, accessed 13 05.13.

 

FLIPPER AND FRIENDS

King, S. L., et al (2013) Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 280 (1757): 20130053. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.0053

Gazda, S., et al (2005) A division of labour with role specialisation in group-hunting bottlenose dolphins off Cedar Key, Florida. Proceedings of the Royal Society B,272 (1559): 135-140. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2004.2937.

Rigley, I., et al (1981) Shallow water behaviour of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science, 55:157-159.

Allen, S. J., et al (2011) Why do Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) carry conch shells (Turbinella spp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia? Marine Mammal Science, 27 (2): 449-454.

 

VIOLENT KILLERS

Cotter, M. P., et al (2012) ‘Porpicide’ in California: killing of harbour porpoises by bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mammal Science, 28 (1): pages E1-E15.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00474.x

Chapman, D. D., et al (2013) The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, an intrauterine cannibal. Biology Letters, 9 (3): 20130003.
doi: 0.1098/rsbl.2013.0003

Ashbrook, K., et al (2008) Hitting the buffers: conspecific aggression undermines benefits of colonial breeding under adverse conditions. Biology Letters, 4 (6): 630-633. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0417

 

JONAH AND THE WHALE

Bright, M. R. (2006) Beasts of the Field. Robson Books, London. ISBN: 9-781861-058317.

Davis, E. B. (1991) A Whale of a Tale: Fundamentalist Fish Stories. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 43: 224-237.

 

MAN OVERBOARD

Davis, E. Y. (1947) Man in Whale. Natural History 56: 241.

Scheffer, V. (1969) The Year of the Whale. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. ISBN: 0-14-00.3583-4.

 

JONAH, THE WHALE AND REALITY
Bright, M. R. (2006) Beasts of the Field. Robson Books, London. ISBN: 9-781861-058317.

 

JONAH AND THE SHARK
Bright, M. R. (2006) Beasts of the Field. Robson Books, London. ISBN: 9-781861-058317.

Diley, D. (2012) Huge great white caught in Morocco.
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De Maddalena, A., et al (2001) An analysis of the photographic evidence of the largest great white sharks captured in the Mediterranean Sea with considerations about the maximum size of the species. Annales,2 (25): 193-206

 

JONAH AND THE MONSTER SHARK

Bright, M. R. (1989) There Are Giants in the Sea. Robson Books, London. ISBN: 0-86051-481-1.

Bright, M. R. (1999) The Private Life of Sharks. Robson Books, London. ISBN: 1-86105-157-3.

Barnes, A., and  J. Murphy (1847-1885) Barnes’ Notes on the Old and New Testaments. http://barnes.biblecommenter.com/jonah/1.htm, accessed 10.05.13.

Stead, D. G. (1963) Sharks and Rays of Australian Seas. Angus and Robertson. Sydney.

Anon (1918) Fish That Eats Lobster Pots. Barrier Miner (Broken Hill). Monday 4th February 1918. Trove Digitised Newspapers.
http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/45441604, accessed 10.05.13.

 

KRAKEN UNCOVERED

Larson, L. M. (translater) (1917) The King’s Mirror translated from the Old Norwegian. Scandinavian Monographs 3, New York. The American -Scandinavian Foundation. Oxford University Press. http://www.mediumaevum.com/75years/mirror/index.html, accessed 21.03 13, or
http://archive.org/stream/kingsmirrorspecu00konuuoft/kingsmirrorspecu00konuuoft_djvu.txt, accessed 21.03.13

Bright, M. R. (1989) There Are Giants in the Sea. Robson Books. London. ISBN: 0-86051-481-1.

 

WORLD’S BIGGEST INVERTEBRATES

Kubodera, T., and K. Mori (2005) First-ever observations of a live giant squid in the wild. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272: 2583-2586. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3158

Museum of New Zelaand, Te Papa Tongarewa. Topic: Colossal Squid, at http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Theme.aspx?irn=588, accessed 21.05.13.

Gilly, W. F., et al (2006) Vertical and horizontal migrations by the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas revealed by electronic tagging. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 324:1–17.

Field, J. C., et al (2007) Range ex- pansion and trophic interactions of the jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the California Current. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations. Report 48:131–146

Markaida, U., et al (2008) Food and Feeding of Jumbo Squid Dosidicus gigas in the Central Gulf of California During 2005-2007. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations. Progress Report, 90.

Nigmatullin, C. M., et al (2001) A review of the biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fisheries Research, 54:9–19.

Staaf, D. J., et al (2008) Natural egg mass deposition by the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of California and characteristics of hatchlings and par- alarvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 88:759–770

Zeidberg, L.D., and B. H. Robison (2007) Invasive range expansion by the Hum- boldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the eastern North Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 12948–12950

 

ALL HEAD AND ARMS

Thomas, D. (2008) Octopuses have two legs and six arms.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/2547597/Octopuses-have-two-legs-and-six-arms.html, accessed 17.02.13.

Norman, M. D., et al (2002) First encounter with a live male blanket octopus: the world’s most sexually size-dimorphic large animal. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 36 (4): 733-736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2002.9517126, accessed 17.03.13.

Jones, E. C. (1963) Tremoctopus violaceus uses Physalia tentacles as weapons. Science, 139 (3556): 764–766. DOI: 10.1126/science.139.3556.764

Mazzolai, B., et al (2013) Measurement of octopus arm elongation: evidence of differences by body size and gender. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.02.025

Forsythe, J. W., and R. T. Hanlon (1997) Foraging and associated behaviour by Octopus cyanea Gray, 1849 on a coral atoll, French Polynesia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,209 (102): 15-31.

Hanlon, R. T., and J. W. Forsythe (2008) Sexual cannabalism by Octopus cyanea on a Pacific coral reef. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 41 (1): 19-28. DOI:10.1080/10236240701661123

Cheng, M. W. and R. L. Caldwell (2000) Sex identification and mating in the blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata. Animal Behaviour, 60 (1): 27-33.

Salman, A., and M. Akalin (2012) A Rare Pelagic Cephalopod Ocythoe tuberculata (Octopoda: Argonautoidea): The Record Fecundity for Octopoda and New Data on Morphometry. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 12: 339-344.
doi: 10.4194/1303-2712-v12_2_20

Packard, A., and M. Wurtz (1994) An octopus, Ocythoe, with a swimbladder and triple jets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 344 (1309): 261-275.
doi: 10.1098/rstb.1994.0065

Scheel, D. (2001) Giant octopus: fact sheet. http://marine.alaskapacific.edu/octopus/factsheet.html, accessed 16.05.13.

Wood, J. B. (1995-2013) Enteroctopus dofleini, The Giant Pacific Octopus. http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/Edofleini.php, accessed 16.05.13.

 

O’Shea, S. (2004) The giant octopus Haliphron atlanticus in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 31 (1): 7-13.
DOI: 10.1080/03014223.2004.9518353

 

SIZE IS EVERYTHING
Marata, A., et al (2001) Copulation by the barnacle Tetraclita japonica under natural conditions. Journal of Zoology, 253 (2): 275-280. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0952836901000243

Neufeld, C. J., and A. R. Palmer (2008) Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action. Proceedings of the Royal Society B,275 (1638): 1081-1087. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1760

Arkhipkin, A.I., and V.V. Laptikhovsky (2010) Observation of penis elongation in Onykia ingens: implications for spermatophore transfer in deep-water squid. Journal of Molluscan Studies, published online on June 30, 2010. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyq019

Jackson, G. D., and P. V. Mladenov (1994) Terminal spawning in the deepwater squid Moroteuthis ingens. Journal of Zoology, 234 (2): 189-201.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb06067.x

 

CLEVER CRUSTACEANS
Taylor, G. M. (2000) Maximum force production: why are crabs so strong? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 267 (1451): 1475-1480. doi: 0.1098/rspb.2000.1167

Lohmann, K. J., et al (1995) Magnetic orientation of spiny lobsters in the ocean: experiments with undersea coil systems. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 198: 2041-2048.

Breithaupt, T., and J. Atema (2000) The timing of chemical signalling with urine in dominance fights of male lobsters (Homarus americanus). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology,49: 67-78.

Stevens, M., et al (2013) Colour change and camouflage in the horned ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. doi: 10.1111/bij.12039

Muramatsu, D. (2011) The function of the four types of waving display in Uca lactea: effects of audience, sand structure, and body size. Ethology, 117 (5): 408-415. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2011.01884.x

Backwell, P. R. Y., et al (2000) Dishonest signalling in a fiddler crab. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B, 267: 719-724

Cannicci, S., et al (2000) Homing in the swimming crab Thalamita crenata: a mechanism based on underwater landmark memory. Animal Behaviour, 60 (2): 203-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2000.1458

Stachowicz, J. J., and M. E. Hay (1999) Reducing predation through chemically mediated camouflage: indirect effects of plant defences on herbivores. Ecology, 80 (2): 495-509.

Versluis, M., et al (2000) How snapping shrimps snap: through cavitating bubbles. Science, 289 (5487): 2114-2117. DOI: 10.1126/science.289.5487.2114

 

ON THE ROCKS

Strand, M., and P. Sundberg, P. (2010) Lineus longissimus Långsnöre, p. 104 - in: Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna. Stjärnmaskar - slemmaskar. Sipuncula - Nemertea. Artdatabanken, SLU, Uppsala, ISBN 978-91-88506-72-6

Jaeckle, W. B., and R. R. Strathmann (2013) The anus as a second mouth: anal suspension feeding by an oral deposit-feeding sea cucumber. Invertebrate Biology, 132 (1): 62-68. DOI: 10.1111/ivb.12009

Pincebourde S., et al (2009). An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures. The American Naturalist, 174: 890-897

Gaylord, B., et al (2013) Turbulent shears spurs settlement in larval sea urchins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1220680110

Jackson, E, and S. Johnsen (2011) Orientation to objects in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus on apparent and not actual object size. Biological Bulletin, 220 (2): 86-88

Yerramilli, D., and S. Johnsen (2010) Spatial vision in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 213 (2): 249-255. doi: 10.1242/jeb.033159

Ullrich-Lüter, E. M., et al (2011) Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (20): 8367-8372.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1018495108

Love-Chezem, T., et al (2013) Defense through sensory inactivation: sea hare ink reduces sensory and motor responses of spiny lobsters to food odours. Journal of Experimental Biology,216: 1364-1372. doi: 10.1242/​jeb.081828

McCarthy, H. O., et al (2000) A transmissible trematode affects direction and rhythm of movement in a marine gastropod. Animal Behaviour, 59 (6): 1161-1166. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1414

Farrell, E. d., and T. P. Crowe (2007) The use of byssus threads by Mytilus edulis as an active defence against Nucella lapillus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87 (2): 559-564.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315407055622

Wainwright, D. K., et al (2013) Stick tight: suction adhesion on irregular surfaces in the northern clingfish. Biology Letters, 9 (3): 20130234.
doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0234

 

MUD, MUD, GLORIOUS MUD
Ishimatsu, A., et al (2007) Mudskippers brood their eggs in air but submerge them for hatching. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210: 3946-3954.
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Dufour, S.C, and H. Felbeck H (2003) Sulphide mining by the superextensile foot of symbiotic thyasirid bivalves. Nature, 426:65-67

Kamel, S. J., and R. K. Grosberg (2012) Exclusive male care despite extreme female promiscuity and low paternity in a marine snail. Ecology Letters, doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01841.x

Cowles, D. (2007) Urechis caupo. http://www.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/inverts/Echiura/Urechis_caupo.html, accessed 28.04.13.

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Glenner, H., and J.T. Høeg (1995) A new motile, multicellular stage involved in host invasion by parasitic barnacles. Nature,377 (6545): 147-150. DOI: 10.1038/377147a0

 

CORAL REEF CHARACTERS

Pietsch, T. W., et al (2009) A bizarre new species of frogfish of the genus Histiophryne (Lophiiformes: Antennariidae) from Ambon and Bali, Indonesia. Copeia, 2009 (1): 37-45.

Szczebak, J. T., et al (2013) Anemonefish oxygenate their anemone hosts at night. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216: 970-976. doi: 10.1242/​jeb.075648

Black, M. P., and M. S. Grober (2003) Group sex, sex change, and parasitic males: sexual strategies among the fishes and their neurobiological correlates. Annual Review of Sex Research, 14:160-184. PMID: 15287162

Bshary, R., et al (2006) Interspecific Communicative and Coordinated Hunting between Groupers and Giant Moray Eels in the Red Sea. PLoS Biol 4(12): e431. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040431

Vincent, A. C. J. (1995) A role for daily greetings in maintaining seahorse pair bonds. Animal Behaviour, 49:258-260.
doi: 10.1016/0003-3472(95)80011-5.

Vail, A. L., et al (2013) Referential gestures in fish collaborative hunting. Nature Communications, Article number: 1765. doi:10.1038/ncomms2781

Vianna, G. M. S., et al (2013) Environmental Influences on Patterns of Vertical Movement and Site Fidelity of Grey Reef Sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at Aggregation Sites. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60331. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060331

Videlier, H., et al (1999). Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic properties of the mucous envelope of the queen parrotfish. Journal of Fish Biology, 54 (5): 1124–1127. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1999.tb00864.x

Meyer-Rochow, V. B. (1977) Comparison between 15 Carapus mourlani in a single holothurian and 19 C. mourlani from starfish. Copeia, 1977 (3): 582–584. JSTOR 1443286

Dixson, D. L., and M. E. Hay (2012) Coral chemically cue mutualistic fishes to remove competing seaweeds. Science, 338 (6108): 804-807. doi: 10.1126/science.1225748

Kremien, M., et al (2013) Benefit of pulsation in soft corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1301826110

 

HEADS OR TAILS?
McCosker, J. (1977) Fright Posture of the Plesiopid Fish Calloplesiops altivelis: An Example of Batesian Mimicry. Science, 197: 400-401.

Rasmussen, A. R., and J. Elmberg (2009) ‘Head for my tail’: a new hypothesis to explain how venomous sea snakes avoid becoming prey. Marine Ecology, 30 (4): 385-390. doi: 10.1111/j.1439- 0485.2009. 00318

Zimmerman K., and H. Heatwole (1990) Cutaneous Photoreception: A New Sensory Mechanism for Reptiles. Copeia, 1990 (3): 860-862

 

CORAL REEF VALETING SERVICE

Bshary R., and M. Würth(2001) Cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus manipulate client reef fish by providing tactile stimulation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 268, 1495-1501

Soares, M., et al (2007) Client preferences by Caribbean cleaning gobies: food, safety or something else? Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 61: 1015-1022.
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Chapuis, L., and R. Bshary (2010) Signalling by the cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus. Animal Behaviour, 79 (3): 645-647.
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FISH TALES

Hernandez, K. M., et al (2013) Acoustic monitoring of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Massachusetts Bay: implications for management and conservation. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fst003

Sidell, B. D., and K. M. O'Brien (2006) When Bad Things Happen to Good Fish: The Loss of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin Expression in Antarctic Icefishes. Journal of Experimental Biology,209 (10): 1791–1802. doi:10.1242/jeb.02091. ISSN 1477-9145 0022-0949, 1477-9145. PMID 16651546.

Barber, D. L., et al (1981) The blood cells of the Antarctic icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg: light and electron microscopic observations. Journal of Fish Biology,19 (1): 11–28. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1981.tb05807.x. ISSN 1095-8649.

Takegaki, T., and A. Nakazono (2000) The role of mounds in promoting water-exchange in the egg-tending burrows of Valenciennea longipinnis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,253 (2): 149-163.

Wirtz, P., (2007) The return of the yellow grouper – annual migration and return to the same site by a xanthistic Mycoteroperca fusca. International Journal of Ichthyology, 13 (1): 31-34

Anon (2013) Boat found with live fish inside confirmed to be Japanese tsunami debris. Washington State Marine Debris Task Force April 10,2013. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/news/2013/13-005-MDNR.html accessed 26.04.13

 

BIRDS AT SEA

Cruz, S. M., et al (2013) At-sea behaviour varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull. PLoS ONE 8 (2): e56889.
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Martin, G. R. (1999) Eye structure and foraging in king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. Ibis, 141 (3): 444-450. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1999.tb04413.x

Perry, M. C., et al (2013) Predation on Dovekies by Goosefish over Deep Water in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Northeastern Naturalist, 20 (1)

Nevitt, G. A., et al (1995) Dimethyl Sulphide as a Foraging Cue for Antarctic Procellariiform Seabirds. Nature,376, 680-682.

Nevitt, G. A. (1999) Olfactory foraging in Antarctic seabirds: a species-specific attraction to krill odours. Marine Ecology Progress Series,177, 235-241

Young, L. C., et al (2008) Successful same-sex pairing in Laysan albatross. Biology Letters, 4 (4): 323-325. Doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0191

Grémillet, D., et al (2001) Foraging energetics of arctic cormorants and the evolution of diving birds. Ecology Letters, 4: 180-184.

 

PERFORMING SEALS

Cook, P., et al (2013) A Californian sea lion can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 0735-7036/13/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0032345

Wieskotten, S., et al (2010) Hydrodynamic determination of the moving direction of an artificial fin by a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Journal of Experimental Biology,213: 2194-2200. doi: 10.1242/​jeb.041699

Insley, S. J. (2000) Long-term vocal recognition in the northern fur seal. Nature,406: 404-405. doi:10.1038/35019064

Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P., et al (2001) Flipper versus feet: comparative trends in aquatic and non-aquatic carnivores. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70: 386-400.

Wilkinson I. S., et al (2000) Infanticide and cannibalism in the New Zealand sea lion Phocartus hookeri. Marine Mammal Science. 2000 16 (2) p.494. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2000.tb00942.

 

WELL-TRAVELLED SEALS

Vacquié-Garcia, J., et al (2012) Foraging in the Darkness of the Southern Ocean: Influence of Bioluminescence on a Deep Diving Predator. PLoS ONE 7(8): e43565. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043565

Fabiani, A. (2003) Long-range paternal gene flow in the southern elephant seal. Science, 299 (5607): 676. doi: 10.1126/science.299.5607.676

 

TURTLE TRAVELS

Lusci, P., et al (1998) The navigational feats of green sea turtles migrating from Ascension Island investigated by satellite telemetry. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 265 (1412): 2279-2284

Lusci, P., et al (2007) Marine turtles use geomagnetic cues during open-sea homing. Current Biology, 17 (2): 126-133.

Hayes, G. C., et al (2003) Island-finding ability of marine turtles. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 270 (Suppl 1): S5-S7. doi:  10.1098/rsbl.2003.0022

Benhamou, S., et al (2007) The role of geomagnetic cues in green turtle open sea navigation. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26672. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026672. Epub 2011 Oct 26

Anon (2013) Ostional Wildlife Reserve. http://nicoyapeninsula.com/ostional accessed 08.05.13.

Anon (2007) The largest turtle in the world. National Museum of Wales. http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/rhagor/article/turtle accessed 08.05.13.

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Davenport, J., et al (2009) Fat head: an analysis of head and neck insulation in the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) , Journal of Experimental Biology, 212 (17): 2753-2759. doi: 10.1242/jeb.026500

Penick, D.N., et al (1998). Thermal Independence of Muscle Tissue Metabolism in the Leatherback Turtle, Dermochelys coriacea. Comparative Biochemical Physiology. Part A 120: 399–403. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(98)00024-5.

Sale, A., et al (2006) Long-term monitoring of leatherback turtle diving behaviour during oceanic movements. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,328: 197-210.

 

MISCELLANY OF MARITIME MYSTERIES

Priede, I. G., et al (2012) Observations on torquaratorid acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) from the North Atlantic with descriptions of a new genus and three new species. Invertebrate Biology, 131 (3): 244-257. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7410.2012.00266.x

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Steller, G. W. (1988) Journal of a Voyage with Bering 1741-1742. Edited and with an introduction by O. W. Frost. Translated by Margritt A. Engel and O. W. Frost. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Anon (1885) A Couple of Fish Stories: San Francisco Bay furnishes a sea serpent and a monster. New York Times April 5, 1885.
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Bright, M. (1989) There Are Giants in the Sea. Robson Books, London. ISBN: 0-86051-481-1.

Shuker, K. (2009) Sighting a Sea Serpent.
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Morrissey, A. (2010) Newfoundland fishermen snag monster in nets.
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Pierce, S., et al (2004) Microscopic, Biochemical, and Molecular Characteristics of the Chilean Blob and a Comparison With the Remains of Other Sea Monsters: Nothing but Whales. Biological Bulletin,206: 125–133.

Anon (2010) The new ‘Nessie’? Mystery ‘sea creature’ spotted off British coast.
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Viegis, J. (2011) Loch Ness monster-like animal filmed in Alaska?
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Smyth, P. S. (2010) ‘Sea monster’ has little appetite for Bob Manikin.
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Berzin, A. A., et al (1963) Was Steller’s sea cow exterminated? Original paper in Priroda 52 (8): 73-75. Preliminary translation by W. E Ricker in Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Translation Series No: 548 (1965).
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Malast, R. (2006) A manatee, off our coast? Chinook Observer, 13th September 2006. Quoted in: http://www.ifish.net/board/showthread.php?t=127415, accessed 21.02.13.

Coleman, L. (2010) Update: new Steller’s sea cow sighting? WA 2010. At: http://www.cryptomundo.com/cryptozoo-news/sea-cowwa-2010, accessed 13.08.13.

Graham, J. B., and W. R. Lowell (1987) Surface and subsurface swimming of the sea snake Pelamis platurus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 127: 27-44